Native Plant Swap

Since 1910, conservation and environmental studies have been an integral part of the Boy Scouts of America. Scouts have rendered distinguished public service by helping to conserve wildlife, energy, forests, soil, and water. Past generations of Scouts have been widely recognized for undertaking conservation Good Turn action projects in their local communities. Through environmental explorations, Cub Scouts, Scouts BSA, Venturers, and Sea Scouts visit the outdoors and discover the natural world around them. Many natural resource careers are born in Scouting.

The goal of the Native Plant Swap is to get more Texas native plants growing in home landscapes and support local conservation projects, some of which are conducted by Scouts.

                   Learn about native plants and how to grow plants from seed.
  Cultivate 12 native plants.

  Swap and take home 10 different native plants. Donate 2+ plants for local conservation projects.
  Benefit. Native plants provide multiple benefits to people and wildlife, while contributing greatly to healthy soil and water in urban and rural areas. As the plants establish and flourish, enjoy the abundance of life that they bring to your garden. Share what you have learned with family, friends and neighbors. A single flower can produces hundreds of seeds to share.

This is a 2-part program.

Part 1 Zoom Meeting Date: TBD Participants will RSVP for Part 1 of this 2-part program. Part 1 be a Zoom call to learn about the program, learn how to grow plants from seed and learn the benefits of using native plants. Participants will then purchase and grow 12 native plants.

RSVP (opens soon)
Part 2 Cockrell Scout Center
2225 N Loop W
Houston, Texas 77008
Date: TBD Participants will meet (Time: TBD) to exchange 10 seedlings. Participants will donate two plants that will be used in a local conservation project and take home 10 different native plants."

Register (opens in January)

Importance of Native Plants

"When it comes to attracting beautiful butterflies and birds to your yard or community, the best thing you can do is use native plants. By planting natives, you restore the health and function of your local ecosystem... Did you know that a native oak tree can support the caterpillars over 500 species of butterflies and moths? Those caterpillars are a critical food source for over 96 percent of the songbirds. For example, a pair of Carolina chickadees requires between 6,000 and 9,000 caterpillars to successfully raise just one brood of young. That’s the power and importance of planting native plants when it comes to supporting wildlife." (Source)

"Nature knows best. When we live in synchronicity with mother nature rather than working against her we provide a better opportunity for survival and quality of life for all species. When we plant what was intended to be here... it will naturally perform better." (Source) Why native plants:

 

• Low maintenance, once established
• Reduced need for fertilizer and pesticides
• Survive temperature extremes
• Reduce mowing costs
• Conserve water
• Protect soils
• Mitigate flooding
• Help the climate

• Create a healthier place for you, your family and community
• Provide habitat for birds, butterflies and other wildlife
• Promote biodiversity and stewardship of our natural heritage
• Primary source of wildlife food for many animals
• Attract insect herbivores needed in food chain
• Insects do not recognize non-native plants as food due to lack of evolutionary exposure
• Lack of biodiversity leads to wildlife decline and greater probability of species-specific extinction
​• Full food web allows for predation between all species
Save money in many different ways  

How to Know if a Plant is Native

Texas has over 5,000 species of native plants. Native wildflowers, grasses, shrubs and trees do much more than add beauty to the landscape. "A plant is considered native if it has occurred naturally in a particular region, ecosystem, or habitat without human introduction," having occurred before European settlement in North America. (Source)

Most of the plants in big-box stories and nurseries are non-natives. These plants disrupt the food web, outcompete native plants and degrade the habitat. People vary in how they use the word native to describe native plants. Participants are encouraged to seek out resources (e.g., maps) and research plants by their scientific names to ensure they are not only native to our area but also that they are not cultivars (typically identified by single quotation marks in their name).  

Houston Area Native Plants

Finding native plants can be challenging. "Pollinators need a variety of plants that bloom at different times throughout the season. Some plants provide nectar, others yield pollen, and nutritional values vary with each species. A healthy diet is a diverse diet: what’s true for people is true for pollinators." (Source)  Find a list of native plants using the database below by searching your county code, category (e.g., tree, vine, grass, milkweed, aquatic), the scientific or common name, or where to purchase seeds or plants.

    1Common
Name
1Scientific
Name
2Category 6Propogation
(
Stratification)
3seeds Available 7Plants Available Bloom
Time
Bloom
Color
8full
Exposure
9Soil
moisture
Height 10Life
Cycle
11#NWF 
Benefits
12Maps 13Code 14County
    Acanada Milk Vetch Astragalus canadensis herb: Milk Vetch seeds (10*), NPN PM   Jun, Jul, Aug cream full, partial any 3' P butterflies, hummingbirds, birds, bees, host: Western Tailed blue   ASCA11;
BONAP
80
    Alamo vine Merremia dissecta vine - Alamo     HAR, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov white, purple full, partial any FACU 12' D butterflies   medI2
BONAP
45
    Alkali Sacaton Sporobolus airoides grass - Sacaton seeds, NPN NAS   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov yellow partial moist, FAC 3-6' P 3 butterflies & moths, bees   SPAI;
BONAP
21, 102, 170
    American Basketflower Centaurea americana herb - Basketflower seeds NAS HAB,   May-Aug pink, white full, partial dry 1.5-5' A butterflies, bees   CEAM2 21, 36, 94, 102, 154, 158, 236, 239
  . American Beautyberry Callicarpa americana shrub - Beautyberry seeds, cuttings; NPN NAS HAB, HAR, NC, NH,  May, Jun, Jul purple, white fruit partial wet 3-6' D butterflies, birds, fruit   CAAM2
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 102, 154, 204, 228, 236, 239
    American Bur Reed Sparganium americanum grass seeds (Fr) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug   full, partial wet, OBL 3' P 6 butterflies & moths; birds, insects   SPAM;
BONAP;
BONAP
102, 170, 236
    American Holly Ilex opaca tree - Holly seeds, cuttings     Winter red berries full, partial any 15-25' E 42 butterflies & moths; birds; bees;
host: Henry's Elfin
  ILOP;
BONAP
21, 36, 94, 102, 170, 204, 228, 236
    American Lotus Nelumbo lutea aquatic - Lotus division PM GSW,   Jul, Aug, Sept white, yellow full wet NELU, OBL   P     NELU;
BONAP
21, 45, 102,  158, 239
    American Pokeweed Phytolacca americana herb - Pokeweed seeds NAS   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov white, pink, purple partial moist   P birds   PHAM4;
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 154, 239
    American Swamp Lily Crinum americanum aquatic - shrub - Lilly     GSW, NH,  Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov white partial wet
BL
  P     CRAM2;
BONAP
102 (rare)
  . American Sycamore Platanus occidentalis tree - Sycamore seeds, NPN     Fall and winter red, yellow, green, brown full, partial moist 75-100' D birds   PLOC
BONAP
8, 21, 102
    Anacua, Sandpaper tree, Knockaway Ehretia anacua tree seeds, cutting     All Year white  full, partial   20-45' E bees, birds, fruit   EHAN;
BONAP
8, 21, 102
    Annual Buttercup Ranunculus sceleratus aquatic - Buttercup seeds (30) PM   April, May, Jun yellow partial wet, med-wet
OBL
2'   2 butterflies & moths   RASC3;
BONAP
8, 102, 239
    Antelope-horns Milkweed Asclepias asperula Milkweed seeds, cuttings     Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct white, green full any   P 22* butterflies & mothshost: Monarchs, Queens; bees, birds   ASAS;
BONAP
102, 239
  . aquatic milkweed Asclepias perennis Milkweed aquatic     GSW, HAB, HAR,  NC, NH, MS May-Sep white-pink full, partial     P 22* butterflies & moths   ASPE;
BONAP
 
  . Arkansas Yucca Yucca arkansana   seeds, cuttings     May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct white full, partial dry 1-4' E     YUAR2;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 94, 102, 154, 236, 239
    Arrow Arum Peltandra virginica aquatic - Arum seeds, cuttings (0*) PM   April, May, Jun green full, partial, shade wet
OBL
2' P birds, ducks   PEVI;
BONAP
108, 154
    Arrowfeather Threeawn Aristida purpurascens grass     HAB,  Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep purple, brown   moist 1.5' P     ARPU8
BONAP
21, 94, 108, 239
  . Arrowwood Viburnum Viburnum dentatum shrub seeds   HAR,  Spring and Fall white  any moist 6-10' D 67 butterflies & mothssongbirds, mammals, bees, insects; fruit; host: azure   VIDE;
BONAP
36, 45, 94, 102, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Ash Fraxinus americana tree - Ash seeds     Apr, May yellow, purple any any 120' D 104 butterflies & moths; songbirds, game birds;
host: hairstreak, cloak, viceroy, swallowtail+
  FRAM2;
BONAP
21, 26, 154, 236, 237
    Awned Graceful Sedge Carex davisii grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul   partial, shade med-wet, med 2'. P .   CADA;
BONAP
108
  . Bald Cypress Taxodium distichum tree seeds     Apr purple full, partial moist
OBL
50-75' D 18 butterflies & mothsbirds, mammals; host: moth, sphynx   TADI2;
BONAP
21, 102, 170, 204, 236, 242
  . Barbados Cherry Malpighia glabra shrub cuttings   BU Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec pink  full, partial dry 2-6' SE butterflies, birds, berries, insects, mammals; host: skipper, duskywing+   MAGL6;
BONAP
102
    Beardtongue Penstemon laxiflorus herb - Penstemon seeds NAS   Mar, Apr, May, Jun white, pink partial dry 1-3' D 14 butterflies & moths; hummingbirds, bees   PELA10;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 236, 239, 242
  . Big bluestem "Big Four" Andropogon gerardii grass seeds (0), division PMNAS HAB,   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept   full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 7' E 22 butterflies & moths; birds, bees, host: skippers   ANGE;
BONAP
 
    Bigfoot Waterclover Marsilea macropoda aquatic - herb - groundcover division   NH,      any wet,
OBL
6-10" P     MAMA9
BONAP
102
    Bird's Foot Violet Viola pedata Violet cuttings, seeds (60) PM   April, May, Jun purple full, partial med, med-dry, dry 3"   20* butterflies & moths, birds, host: Fritillary   VIPE
BONAP
236
    Black Cherry Prunus serotina tree cuttings, seeds     Spring and summer white  full, partial moist 70-100' D 270 butterflies & moths; bees, birds, fruit; host: swallowtail, vicoroy+ . PRSES
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 204, 228, 236
    Black Walnut Juglans nigra tree seeds     Apr, May yellow, green, brown full, partial moist 75'+ D 116 butterflies & moths; birds, squirrels   JUNI;
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 170, 239
    Black Willow Salix nigra tree - Willow cuttings, seeds, NPN     Apr, May yellow any wet 60' D 229 butterflies & moths; bees, birds; waterfowl, mammals, host: viceroy, swallowtail+   SANI
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 102, 154, 158, 170, 236, 239
    Black-Eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta herb seeds (30), NPN PMNAS HAB, HAR, NC  Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 2' P 14* butterflies & moths; birds; bees; host: checkerspot+   RUHI2
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239
    Blackberry, Dewberry, Raspberry Rubus TC       HAR,             100 butterflies & moths     21
    Blackgum Nyssa aquatica aquatic tree seeds     Apr, May green full wet,
OBL
50-100' D 28 butterflies & moths; bees, insects   NYAQ2
BONAP
108, 170
    Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis herb - Bloodroot seeds (F  L), division PM   April, May white partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry 6" P     SACA13:
BONAP
158
    Blue Curls Phacelia congesta herb - Curls seeds NAS   Mar, Apr, May blue, purple full,
partial
dry 3' A, B 4 butterflies & moths; bees, insects   PHCO2;
BONAP
21, 154, 239
    Blue Flax Linum lewisii shrub - Flax   NAS   Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep blue, purple full dry 16' P 21* butterflies & moths, bees   LILE3
BONAP
154
    Blue Grama Bouteloua gracilis grass - (turf) seeds (0), NPS PM, NAS   Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full, partial med-dry, dry 12" D host for skippers, birds, butterflies; birds, host: skippers   BOGR2;
BONAP
21
    Blue Mistflower Conoclinium coelestinum herb - Mistflower seeds (60), division JB, PM, NAS HAR, NC, NH,  Sep, Oct blue partial med-wet, med, med-dry 1-3' P 1 butterfly & moth; birds, bees   COCO13;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 158, 170, 204, 236, 242
    Blue Waterleaf Hydrolea ovata aquatic - herb     GSW, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct blue full, partial wet,
OBL
  P butterflies, birds, bees   HYOV
BONAP
21, 26, 45, 80, 102, 108, 154, 228, 236, 239
    Bluebonnets Lupinus texensis Lupine seeds NAS   Mar, Apr, May white, blue full dry 60 cm A 27 butterflies & moths; bees, insects, host: Hairstreak, Elfin   LUTE
BONAP
8, 21, 45, 80, 94, 170, 204, 236, 237, 242
    Bluebonnets Sandyland Lupinus subcarnosus Lupine seeds NAS   Mar, Apr blue, purple full   <1' A 27 butterflies & moths, bees   LUSU
BONAP
8, 21, 45, 102, 154, 204, 236, 237, 239
    Blunt Spike Rush Eleocharis obtusa grass seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct   full wet, med-wet
OBL
3' A 4* butterflies & moths   ELOB2
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 270, 228, 237
    Bluntleaf Milkweed Asclepias amplexicaulis Milkweed       May, Jun, Jul, Aug
 
pink, green, purple       P bees, insects   ASAM
BONAP
8, 21, 102, 108, 170, 204, 236
    Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum Boneset seeds (30) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept white full, partial wet, med-wet 3-6' P 33 butterflies & moths; birds, bees, insects   EUPE3;
BONAP
8, 21, 102, 108, 170, 236
    Bottlebrush Blazing Star, Gayfeather Liatris mucronata herb - Gayfeather seeds (30) PMNAS   Aug, Sep, Oct pink, purple full med-dry, dry 1-3' D 6* butterflies & moths   LIPUM2
BONAP
21, 45, 236, 239
    Bracted Gayfeather Liatris bracteata herb - Gayfeather     HAB,  Oct purple       P 6* butterflies & moths, bees   LIBR
BONAP
46,102, 158
    Branched Dicliptera Dicliptera banchiata herb     NH,  Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct pink, purple partial moist   D butterflies; host: crescent   DIBR2;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 80, 102, 158, 204, 236, 242
    Bristly Sedge Carex comosa grass seeds (60) PM   Jun white, green, brown full wet, med-wet 2'. P .   CACO8;
BONAP
236
    Broadleaf Milkweed Asclepias latifolia Milkweed       Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct yellow, green full dry 3' P butterflies, insects   ASLA4
BONAP
108
    Broomsedge Andropogon virginicus grass seeds (30) PMNAS HAB,  May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov yellow, purple, brown partial med, med-dry, dry 4' D 22 butterflies & moths, birds, bees, host: skipper   ANVI2
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 80, 94,102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236, 237
    brown Fox Sedge Carex vulpinoidea grass seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug green, brown full, partial wet, med-wet, med, med-dry 3'. P birds   CAVU2
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 108, 154
  . brownseed Paspalum Paspalum plicatulum grass     HAB, NH,  May-Jul bluish-green leaves, full, partial moist 2-4' P 23 butterflies & moths   PAPL3
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 80, 94, 102, 154, 170, 236, 237, 239, 242
    Buffalo Gourd Cucurbita foetidissima herb - Gourd   NAS   Jun, Jul, Aug yellow full     P     CUFO;
BONAP
102
    Buffalograss Bouteloua dactyloides grass   NAS   Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec yellow full dry 3-12" P-SE birds, butterflies, host - skipper   BODA2;
BONAP
21, 154, 236, 239, 242
    Bulltongue Arrowhead Sagittaria lancifolia aquatic Arrowhead NPN   GSW, NH,  Jun, Jul, Aug white full wet 1-3' P 6* butterflies & moths   SALA
BONAP
36, 80, 102
    Bully Ebenelas                     12 butterflies & moths   BONAP; USDA  
  . Bur Oak, Mossycup Oak Quercus macrocarpa tree seeds, NPN     Mar, Apr, May yellow, green, brown full, partial any 60-100' D 468 butterflies & moths, songbirds, mammals, deer, nuts, host: hairstreak, duskywing   QUMA2
BONAP
21, 26, 154, 158, 237, 239
    Bush fullflower Simsia calva fullflower   NAS   May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov orange, yellow full dry 1-3' D butterflies, birds   SICA7
BONAP
8
    Bush's Coneflower Echinacea paradoxa herb - Coneflower seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug yellow partial med, med-dry, dry 1-3' P 1* butterflies & moths, bees   ECPA2
BONAP
none
  . Bushy bluestem Andropogon glomeratus grass seeds, division   GSW Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov white, brown full moist 4-6' P 22 butterflies & moths, birds, host: skippers, satyrs   ANGL2;
BONAP
 
    Butterfly Milkweed  Asclepias tuberosa Milkweed seeds (30) JBPMNAS HAR, NC,  May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep orange, yellow full, partial med, med-dry, dry 2' D 22* butterflies & moths, hummingbirds, bees, insects, host: monarch, queen, hairstreak +   ASTU
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 236, 239
  . Butterfly white Gaura Oenothera lindheimeri Guara seeds, division   HAB, HAR, April, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec white full, partial moist 2-3' P 22 butterflies & moths   OELI2
BONAP
21, 36, 80, 102, 242
    Button Blazing Star, Rough Blazing Star Liatris aspera herb, Gayfeather seeds (60) PM HAR, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct purple, pink full, partial med, med-dry, dry 2-4' P 6* butterflies & moths, hummingbirds, bees   LIAS
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 108, 170, 204, 236, 237,
    Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis shrub: Buttonbush, aquatic seeds (0) PM GSW, EG, NH,  Jun, Jul, Aug white full, partial wet, med-wet OBL  6-12' D 24 butterflies & moths, birds, bees, insects, fruit, host: sphinx   CEOC2
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 94, 102, 154, 158, 170
    California Bullrush Schoenoplectus californicus herb - aquatic seeds   GSW,  Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug white, yellow full wet,
OBL
3-6' P     SCCA11;
BONAP
 
    Camphor daisy Rayjacksonia phyllocephala       MS Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec yellow     1-3' A     RAPH2
BONAP
36, 102, 158
    Cane bluestem Bothriochloa barbinodis grass - bluestem NPN NAS   Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug yellow full dry 3-6' P 4 butterflies & moths   BOBA3
BONAP
21
  . Cardinal Flower Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal seeds (60), NPN JBPMNAS HAR, Jul, Aug, Sept red any wet, med-wet 1-6; P 4* butterflies & moths, birds,  hummingbirds   LOCA2
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 236
    Carolina Buckthorn, Indian Cherry Frangula caroliniana tree seeds     Fall white, yellow, green partial moist 10-15' D butterflies, birds, berries, host: snout   FRCA13
BONAP
94, 102, 228, 236, 239
    Carolina Cranesbill Geranium carolinianum Cranesbill seeds (90) PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug pink full, partial med-dry, dry 1-3' A     GECA5
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 102, 108, 154, 228, 237, 239, 242
    Carolina Jessamine  Gelsemium sempervirens vine seeds, cuttings     Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Dec yellow full, partial moist   E butterflies, hummingbirds, bees   GESE
BONAP
36, 102, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Carolina Snailseed Cocculus carolinus vine - Snailseed seeds NAS   Jun, Jul, Aug   partial moist 3-15' E 2 butterflies & moths, birds, fruit   COCA
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 154, 170, 237, 239
    Catchfly grass Leersia lenticularis grass seeds (0) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct white, green partial med-wet, med
OBL
3'. P     LELE2
BONAP
21, 36, 94, 108, 204, 228
  . Cedar Elm Ulmus crassifolia tree seeds, NPN     Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct green full, partial moist 30-60' D butterflies, birds, seeds, mammals, host: question mark, cloak   ULCR
BONAP
21, 80, 94, 102, 228, 239
    Cherokee Sedge Carex cherokeensis grass seeds   GSW Apr, May, Jun white, green, brown partial wet   E     CACH3
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 80, 94, 102, 158, 170, 204, 236, 237, 239, 242
    Cherry Laurel Prunus caroliniana shrub seeds, cuttings   HAB,  Feb, Mar, Apr white full, partial moist   E birds, bees   PRCA
BONAP
21, 26, 102, 204, 228, 236, 239
    Chestnut Castanea pumila tree seeds     Mar, Apr, May, Jun white partial dry   D 102 butterflies & moths; nuts, squirrels, host: moth   CAPU9
BONAP
102, 158, 170, 204
    Chile pequin Capsicum annuum shrub seeds, cuttings   HAR, NH, MS May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov white partial, shade moist 1-4' D birds, peppers   CAAN4
BONAP
8, 21, 94, 102, 237
    Chisos Prairie Acacia Acacia angustissima shrub       May, Jun, Jul, Aug white     20" D 52 butterflies & moths   ACANC3;
BONAP 
 
  . Cinnamon Fern Osmunda cinnamomea aquatic division, NPN     Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec green partial, shade moist 2-3' SE birds   OSCI
BONAP
108, 154, 204, 236
    Clasping Coneflower Dracopis amplexicaulis herb - Coneflower seeds, NPN NAS   Apr, May, Jun, Jul yellow partial moist 1-3' A butterflies, bees   DRAM
BONAP
8, 21, 94, 108, 154, 158, 236, 237, 239
  ? Clasping Dogbane Apocynum sibiricum ? Dogbane seeds (0) PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept white full med-wet, med, med-dry 5'   .   ???; 
BONAP
154, 236
    Clustered Bushmint Hyptis alata       HAB, HAR, NH,  May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov white full   2-5' P    
BONAP
36, 102, 237
    Clustered Mountain Mint Pycnanthemum muticum Mountain Mint seeds (0) PM HAR, Jul, Aug, Sept pink full, partial med, med-dry 3'   3 butterflies & moths   PYMU;
BONAP
170
    Coast Germander Teucrium cubense Germander     HAB,                  TECU;
BONAP
102
    Coastal Water Hyssop, herb of grade Bacopa monnieri aquatic     GSW,        BAMO, OBL        
BONAP
21, 102, 228, 239
    Common Arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia aquatic Arrowhead seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept white full, partial wet 3'   6* butterflies & moths   SALA2;
BONAP
21, 36, 108, 204, 236
    Common Beggarticks Bidens frondosa Beggarticks seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full, partial, shade wet, med-wet 3' A bees   ;
BONAP
21, 236
  . Common blue Violet Viola sororia Violet seeds (60) PM   April, May, Jun purple full partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry 4" A, SE 20 butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
8, 21, 45, 102, 108, 158, 204, 236, 237
    Common blue-Eyed grass Sisyrinchium albidum grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun blue full, partial med-dry, dry 6"       SIAL3;
BONAP
108, 154
    Common Evening Primrose Oenothera biennis Primrose seeds (0) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry     22 butterflies & moths   OEVIV:
BONAP
102
    Common Hop Sedge Carex lupulina grass seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug   full, partial, shade wet, med-wet 3'. P .   CALU4:
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 108, 154, 204, 228, 236
    Common Ironweed Vernonia fasciculata Ironweed seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial med-wet, med 6'   19* butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
none
    Common Rush Juncus effusus aquatic Rush seeds (60) PM GSW Jul, Aug, Sept full   wet, med-wet, med OBL 2' P 6* butterflies & moths   JUEF;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Common fullflower Helianthus annuus fullflower   NAS                   HEAN3;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 102, 154, 236, 239, 242
    Common Tussock Sedge Carex stricta grass seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul white, green, brown full, partial wet, med-wet 3'. P    
BONAP
236
    Common Wood Sedge Carex blanda grass seeds (60) PM   Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul white, green, brown full, partial, shade wet, med-wet, med, med-dry 2'. E .   CABL; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 80, 102, 236, 239
    Compass Plant Silphium laciniatum Compass seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 8'   2* butterflies & moths   SILA3;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 102
    Coontail Ceratophyllum demersum aquatic     NH,                  CEDE4; 
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 80, 102, 108, 228, 236
  . Coral Honeysuckle Lonicera sempervirens vine     HAR, MS, NNC,  Apr, Ma, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct Coral full, partial moist 2" P 28 butterflies & moths   LOSE;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239
    Coralbean Erythrina herbacea       HAB, HAR, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov red full, partial   6-12' D 8 butterflies & moths   ERHE4;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239
  . Coralberry Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Coralberry cuttings, seeds (FH) PM HAR, NC, NH,   May, Jun pink, Coral full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 1.5' to 6' D bees, birds, fruit   SYOR; 
BONAP
21, 36, 80, 94, 108, 154, 204, 236
    Cord grass Spartina pectinata grass seeds (0) PM GSW Jul, Aug, Sept full, partial   wet, med-wet, med 8'       SPPE; 
BONAP
21, 36, 102
    Corpus Christi Fleabane Erigeron procumbens       HAB, HAR,                 ERPR16;
BONAP
21, 36, 170
    Cottonwood Populus deltoides subsp. deltoides                     183 butterflies & moths   PODE3;
BONAP
21, 26, 45, 80, 102, 108, 154, 158, 228, 237, 239
    Cowbane Oxypolis rigidior Cowbane seeds PM   Aug, Sept white full, partial wet, med-wet         OXRI;
BONAP
236
    Cowlily Nuphar lutea aquatic - Lily pad     GSW,    yellow full, partial wet, OBL     turtles, deer, muskrats   NULU; 
BONAP
21, 158
    Cowpen Daisy Verbesina encelioides Daisy seeds NAS               21* butterflies & moths   VEEN;
BONAP
21, 108, 154, 236
    Creeping bluestar Amsonia repens       HAB,                   ;
BONAP
 
    Creeping Burhead Echinodorus cordifollius aquatic Arrowhead     GSW,                  ECCO3;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 102, 108, 154
  . Creeping Spotflower  Acmella oppositifolia var. repens groundcover cuttings   HAB, NH,  May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov orange, yellow, green full   <1' P     ACOPR; 
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 80, 102, 158, 170, 204, 236, 242
    Crossvine Bignonia capreolata vine cuttings, seeds     Mar-Jun red, yellow full, partial   up to 70' SE 2 butterflies & moths, hummingbirds   . USDA
BONAP
36, 94, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Crowfoot Fox Sedge Carex crus-corvi grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug . full, partial, shade med-wet, med 3'. P .   CACR8; 
BONAP
21, 26, 45, 80, 94, 102, 108, 154, 228, 236, 239
    Culver's Root Veronicastrum virginicum Root seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug white full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 5'       ;
BONAP
none
    Cutleaf Daisy, Engelmann's Daisy Engelmannia peristenia Daisy   NAS               1 butterfly & moth   ENPE4;
BONAP
8, 21, 45, 94, 154, 158, 170, 204, 236, 239
    Cutleaf Ev. Primrose Oenothera laciniata Primrose   NAS                   OELA;
BONAP
21, 26, 102, 154, 170, 228, 237, 239
    Dark-green Bulrush Scirpus atrovirens grass seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug   full wet, med-wet 5'       SCGE2;
BONAP
236
    Delta Arrowhead Sagittaria platyphylla aquatic Arrowhead     GSW,                  SAPL;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 94, 102, 108, 154, 158, 170, 204, 236, 239, 
    Devil's Walking Stick Aralia spinosa Walking Stick seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept white full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry to 30' PD ?? butterflies & moths, insects, birds, bees, fruit   ARSP2; 
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 170, 204, 236
    Devils Claw Proboscidea louisianica Claw   NAS                   PRLO;
BONAP
21, 26, 102
    Ditch Stonecrop Penthorum sedoides Stonecrop seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept green, red full, partial wet, med-wet 2'       PESE6;
BONAP
8, 21, 102, 108, 154, 236
    Dogbane Apocynum cannabinum Dogbane seeds (0) PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug white full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 4' P butterflies, insects, monarchs   APCA; 
BONAP
154, 236
    Dotted Blazing Star Liatris punctata Blazing Star seeds (30) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial med-dry, dry 2' P 6* butterflies & moths   LIPU;
BONAP
21, 45, 102,  158, 236, 239
    Dotted St. John's Wort Hypericum punctatum St. John's Wort seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full, partial med, med-dry   P 13* butterflies & moths, bees   HYPS; 
BONAP
236
    Downy lobelia Lobelia puberula       HAB, NH,               4* butterflies & moths   LOPU;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Downy fullflower Helianthus mollis fullflower seeds (30) PM   Aug, Sept yellow full, partial wet, med-wet     81 butterflies & moths   HEMO2;
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 236, 237
  . Drummond red Maple Acer rubrum var. drummondii tree  seeds   HAR, Feb, Mar, Apr red full, partial moist, wet 20-40' D 180 butterflies & moths, birds, insects, host: Sphynx   ACRUD; 
BONAP
102, 204, 228
    Drummond's Aster Symphyotrichum drummondii Aster seeds (0) PM   Sep,  Oct white full, partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry 3' P 7* butterflies & moths   SYDR; 
BONAP
 
    Dudley's Rush Juncus dudleyi grass seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept full   med-wet, med, med-dry 2' P 6* butterflies & moths   JUDU2;
BONAP
8
  .? Dutchman's Pipe Aristolochia serpentaria vine       Apr, May, Jun yellow, purple shade   1-3' D     ARSE3:
BONAP
102, 204, 236
  . Dwarf Palmetto Sabal minor       HAR, NH,  Sep, Oct Black fruit" fall full, partial, shade   5-6' E 5 butterflies & moths   SAMI8;
BONAP
21, 38, 102, 154, 170, 242
    Early Buttercup Ranunculus fascicularis Buttercup seeds (60) PM   April, May yellow full, partial med-dry, dry 9"   2 butterflies & moths   RAFA;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 45, 94, 108, 154, 158, 170, 228, 236
    Early fullflower Heliopsis helianthoides fullflower seeds (30) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry         HEHE5;
BONAP
102
  . Eastern Gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides grass   NAS GSW, HAB, MS, Apr, May, Jun brown  full, partial   4-8' P 5 butterflies & moths   TRDA3;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 94, 102, 154, 170, 239, 
    Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus Opuntia humifusa Cactus seeds (0) PM   Jun, Jul yellow full, partial dry     27 butterflies & moths   OPHU;
BONAP
8, 36, 45, 102, 108, 158,  236, 237
    Eastern red Cedar  Juniperus virginiana tree NPN     Nov, Dec blue fruit full, partial   20-50' E 46 butterflies, birds, mammals, berries, host: olive   JUVI;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 236, 239
    Eastern redbud Cercis canadensis tree     HAR, NC,  Spring & Fall pink-purple blooms partial   15-25' D 27 butterflies & moths   CECA4; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 154, 158, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239
    Elderberry Sambucus nigra spp. canadensis shrub - Elderberry seeds (M) PM HAR, Jun, Jul, Aug white full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry up to 10'   24 butterflies & moths   SANIC4; 
BONAP
21, 26, 94, 102, 108, 158, 170, 204, 236, 237, 239
    Elephant's Foot  Elephantopus carolinianus       NH,  Sep, Oct, Nov Lavender partial, shade   1-3' P     ELCA3;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 236, 239
    Elliot's bluestem Andropogon gyrans grass     HAB,              22 butterflies & moths   ANGY2; 
BONAP
236
    Elm-Leaved Goldenrod Solidago ulmifolia Goldenrod seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct yellow partial, shade med, med-dry 3'   82 butterflies & moths   SOUL2; 
BONAP
21, 26, 94,108, 154, 170, 204, 236, 239, 242
    Emory's Sedge Carex emoryi grass seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug . full, partial wet, med-wet 2'. P .  
BONAP
154
    Eryngo Eryngium leavenworthii Eryngo   NAS   Jul, Aug, Sep blue, purple full, partial moist   A 4* butterflies & moths   ERLE11;
BONAP
8, 21, 102
    Fall Obedient Plant Physostegia virginiana Obedient seeds (60) PM NC,  Aug, Sept pink full, partial wet, med-wet, med 4' P     PHVI8;
BONAP
36, 94, 102
    False Aloe Manfreda virginica       NC,            P     MAVI5;
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 170, 204, 236
    False Boneset Brickellia eupatorioides Boneset seeds (0) PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov cream full, partial med-dry, dry   P 7 butterflies & moths   BREU;
BONAP
102, 108, 170, 204, 236, 239
  . False Indigo, Indigobush, River Locust Amorpha fruticosa tree - Idigo seeds (10) PM MS, NH,  Jun, Jul, Aug purple full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry up to 12' D 29 butterflies, moth, bees, insects, host: Skippers, Dogface, Hairstreak+  
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 102, 102, 170, 236, 237, 239
    False Pennyroyal Isanthus brachiatus Pennyroyal seeds (F) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct blue partial med-dry, dry         TRBR5;
BONAP
94
  . Farkleberry, Sparkleberry Vaccinium arboreum tree       Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec white  shade   12-15' D 151 butterflies & moths   VAAR;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236, 237, 239
    Fewflower Milkweed Asclepias lanceolata milkweed                       ASLA2; 
BONAP
102
    Fire-On-The-Mountain Euphorbia cyathophora Mountain seeds (0) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct green full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 1-3'. A 16* butterflies & moths   EUCY;
BONAP
236
    Flatstem Spike Rush Eleocharis compressa grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun   full, partial wet, med-wet 2'   4* butterflies & moths   ELCO2;
BONAP
21
    Florida Paspalum Paspalum floridanum       HAB,               23 butterflies & moths   PAFL4;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 228, 236, 237, 239, 242
    Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida tree     HAR,             79 butterflies & moths  
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236, 237, 239, 
    Flowering Spurge Euphorbia corollata Spurge seeds (30) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug white full, partial med, med-dry, dry 1-3'. P 16 butterflies & moths   EUCO10;
BONAP
21, 45, 102, 170, 204, 228, 236, 237, 239, 242
    Four-Wing Saltbush Atriplex canescens Saltbush   NAS   Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov yellow partial dry 8' PE butterflies, birds, bees, mammals, fruithost: Sootywing  
BONAP
21
    Fowl Manna grass Glyceria striata grass seeds (0) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept full, partial, shade   wet, med-wet, med 3'       GLST;
BONAP
239
    Foxglove Beardtongue, Smooth white Penstemon Penstemon digitalis Penstemon seeds (30) PMNAS   Jun, Jul white full, partial med, med-dry 4'   14* butterflies & moths   PEDI;
BONAP
236
    Fragrant Mistflower Eupatorium havanese       BU             33 butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
none
    Fragrant Sumac Rhus aromatica Sumac seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug yellow full, partial med-dry, dry 6'   55 butterflies & moths   RHAR4;
BONAP
21, 94, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Fringe tree Chionanthus virginicus tree       Spring & fall white  partial   15-30' D 10 butterflies & moths   CHVI3; 
BONAP
94, 102, 170, 204, 228. 236
    Fringed Brome Bromus ciliatus grass seeds (0) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full, partial wet, med-wet 4'. P 13 butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
21, 154, 126
    Fringed Loosestrife Lysimachia ciliata Loosestrife seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug yellow full, partial, shade med-wet, med 1.5-2' P bees   LYCI;
 
239
  . Frogfruit Phylaincisa Phyla nodiflora groundcover     GSW, HAB, HAR, NC, NH May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct white full, partial, shade     P     :
BONAP
none ?
  . Frostweed Verbesina virginica Frostweed   NAS HAB,   Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov white  partial, shade   3-6' D 21 butterflies & moths   VEVI3;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 236, 242
    Germander Teucrium canadense Germander seeds (60) PM NC,  Jul, Aug, Sept pink full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 3' P butterflies   TECA3;
BONAP
21, 26, 45, 102, 108, 170, 236, 237, 239
    Giant Ironweed, Tall Ironweed, Indian Hyssop Vernonia gigantea Ironweed seeds (60) JBPM   Aug, Sep, Oct purple full, partial med-wet, med 5'   19 butterflies & moths   VEGI;
BONAP
170
    Goat's Rue Tephrosia virginiana Rue seeds (10) PM   Jun, Jul pink, yellow full, partial med, med-dry, dry 12" P birds   TEVI;
BONAP
36, 108, 154, 204, 228, 236
    Golden Alexanders Zizia aurea   Alexanders seeds (60) JBPM   April, May, Jun yellow full med-wet, med, med-dry 3'       ;
BONAP
21, 102, 204, 236
    Golden-Wave Coreopsis basalis Coreopsis   NAS               6 butterflies & moths   COBA2; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 236, 237, 239
    Great Bulrush Scirpus validus grass seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug   full wet, med-wet 6'       SCTA2;
BONAP
36
    Great Coneflower Rudbeckia maxima Bog - Coneflower seeds (0) PM GSW, HAR Jun, Jul yellow full, partial med-wet, med 6' E 14* butterflies & moths   RUMA3;
BONAP
154, 204, 236, 237
    Great Plains Flat Sedge Cyperus lupulinus grass seeds (60) PM   Aug, Sept   full, partial med, med-dry, dry 2"   9 butterflies & moths  
BONAP
21, 94, 237
    Great Plains Goldenrod Euthamia gymnospermoides Goldenrod seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full med-wet, med, med-dry   P 5 butterflies & moths, bees   EUGY;
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 102, 158, 237
    green Comet Milkweed Asclepias viridiflora Milkweed                      
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 154, 158, 170, 204, 236, 239
    green Dragon Arisaema dracontium Dragon seeds (L) PM   May, Jun green partial, shade ;., 3' P birds, mammals, Fruit   ARDR3; 
BONAP
 
  . green Milkweed, green Antelopehorn Milkweed, Spider Milkweed  Asclepias viridis Milkweed seeds (30) JBPMNAS HAR, NC,  May, Jun green full, partial med-dry, dry 12" P 22* butterflies & moths, bees, insects  
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 80, 94, 102, 158, 170, 204, 236, 239, 242
    green Sprangletop Leptochloa dubia Sprangletop   NAS   May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov yellow partial dry 1-3 ft. P host: Skipper butterflies   LEDU;
BONAP
102
    Grooved yellow Flax Linum sulcatum Flax seeds (30) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full med-dry, dry 1-3 ft. A 21* butterflies & moths, bees   LISU4;
BONAP
36, 102, 239
    Ground Plum Astragalus crassicarpus Plum seeds (10) PM   May, Jun purple full med-dry, dry 12" P host: Duskywing  butterflies  
BONAP
26, 94, 236, 239
  . Gulf Coast Penstemon Penstemon tenuis        HAB, HAR, MS, NC, NH, Mar, Apr, May purple full, partial   1 1/2' P     PETE3;
BONAP
242
    Gulf Cordgrass Spartina spartinae grass     GSW,        SPSP, OBL         SPSP;
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 158
  . Gulf Muhly Muhlenbergia capillaris grass     HAB, HAR, MS,NC, NH,  Sep, Oct, Nov purple, pink feathery full, partial   1.5-3' P     MUCA2;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 45, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 236, 237, 239
    Gulf Vervain Verbena xutha       HAB, HAR, MS, NH,                  VEXU;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 236, 239
    Gulf Waterweed Hygrophilia lacustris aquatic     GSW,                 ;
BONAP
 
    Hairy Panic grass Panicum acuminatum grass seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept full, partial   med, med-dry, dry 2'.   30 butterflies & moths   DIACA;
BONAP
21, 36, 120, 154, 242
    Hairy fullflower Helianthus hirsutus       HAB, NH,                   HEHI2;
BONAP
21, 36, 154, 204, 236, 239
    Hairy Wood Chess Bromus pubescens grass seeds (30) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug white, green partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry 4'. P 13 butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
21, 154, 236
    Halberd Leaf Hisbiscus Hibiscus militaris shrub - aquatic - Hibiscus     GSW,                 HILA2;
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170
    Harry Small-Leaf Ticktrefoil Desmodium ciliare       HAB,                  ;
BONAP
21, 80, 102, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236
  . Heartleaf Skullcap Scutellaria ovata Skullcap seeds (60) PM HAB, NC, NH,  Jun, Jul blue partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry 2' E     SCOV;
BONAP
21, 102
    Helmut Skullcap Scutellaria integifolia Skulcap     NH,                  SCIN2;
BONAP
36, 108, 170, 204, 228
  . Hercules Club, Toothache tree, Lime prickly ash Zanthoxylum clava-herculis target="_blank" tree     HAR, NH,   Mar, Apr white, yellowish full, partial dry 10-25' D host: Giant Swallowtail butterflies, birds   ;
BONAP
21, 26, 94, 102, 154, 204, 236, 237, 239
    Hickory Carya aquatica tree                   189 butterflies & moths   CAAQ2; 
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 154, 170, 236
    Hollow Joe Pye Weed Eutrochium fistulosum Joe Pye seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial, shade wet, med-wet         EUFI14;
BONAP
204
    Hooded Windmill grass Chloris cucullata grass   NAS               3 butterflies & moths  
BONAP
8, 21, 45
    Hooker's Eryngo Eryngium hookeri Eryngo   NAS HAB,  Jul, Aug, Sep purple       A 4 butterflies & moths   ERHO9;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 80, 102, 154,  236, 237, 239, 242
    Hornbeam, Ironwood, Musclewood, blue Beech Carpinus caroliniana tree     HAR, Sep, Oct, Nov. Dec   partial, shade   20-30' D 52 butterflies & moths   CACA18; 
BONAP
36, 102, 108, 170, 204, 236
    Horseherb Calyptocarpus vialis groundcover     HAR, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov  yellow  full, partial, shade   8-10" P     CAVI2; 
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 80, 102, 204, 236, 239
    Horsetail Equisetum hymenale aquatic Rush     GSW,  NH,        wet
FACW
        EQHYA;
BONAP
21, 80, 94, 102, 204, 239
    Horsetail Reed Equisetum sp.       HAR,                  EQUIS; 
BONAP
21, 80, 94, 102, 204, 239
    Hyssop-Leaved Thoroughwort Eupatorium hyssopifolium Boneset seeds (60) PM NH,  Aug, Sep, Oct white full, partial med, med-dry, dry     33 butterflies & moths   EUGL7;
BONAP
8, 21, 94, 102, 170, 228, 236, 237
    Illinois Bundle Flower Desmanthus illinoensis Bundle seeds (0) PMNAS NH,  Jul, Aug white, yellow full med, med-dry, dry 1-3' D     ;
BONAP
21, 36, 94, 102, 158, 170, 204, 236, 239
    Indian Blanket, Blanket Flower, Firewheel Gaillardia pulchella Blanket seeds (60) JBNAS HAB, NC, NH, MS April, May, Jun white full, partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry, dry   P 6 butterflies & moths   GAPU;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 94, 102, 158, 170, 236, 237, 239, 242
  .? Indian grass "Big Four" Sorghastrum nutans grass seeds (0) PMNAS HAB, MS, NC, NH,  Aug, Sep   full, partial med, med-dry, dry 3-8' P     SONU2;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 228, 236, 239, 242
    Indian Paintbrush Castilleja coccinea Paintbrush seeds (60) PM   May, Jun red full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry     7 butterflies & moths  
BONAP
none
    Indian Plantain Arnoglossum ovatum       HAB, NC,              1 butterflies & moths   AROV; 
BONAP
 
    Indian Plantain Arnoglossum reniforme       HAR,                   BONAP; USDA
    Inland Rush Juncus Interior grass .seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul full   wet, med-wet 2' P 6 butterflies & moths   JUIN2;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 80, 94,102, 108, 154, 158, 170, 236, 239, 242
    Inland Sea Oats Chasmanthium latifolium grass seeds (60) PMNAS GSWHAR, NH, MS, Jul, Aug, Sep Ivory seeds partial, shade med-wet, med 3' P 8 butterflies & moths   CHLA5; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 80, 102, 108, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239, 242
    Jimson-Weed Datura wrightii Jimson   NAS BU                
BONAP
21
    Jointed Flatsedge Cyperus articulatus aquatic Rush     GSW,        wet
OBL
       
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 154, 158, 236, 242
    Kidneywood Eysenhardtia texana       HAR,             2 butterflies & moths   EYTE;
BONAP
45, 170
    Lance-Leaf Coreopsis Coreopsis lanceolata Coreopsis seeds (30) JBPMNAS HAR, HAB, MS, NC, NH, May, Jun, Jul, Aug yellow full med-dry, dry   A 6 butterflies & moths   COLA5; 
BONAP
36, 94, 102, 170, 228, 236, 237
    Lance-Leaf Water Willow Justicia ovata var. lanceolata         May, Jun, July, Aug, Sep lavender full, partial   12-18" P     JULA3;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 94,102, 154, 170, 204, 236, 237, 239
    Lanceleaf Frog Fruit Phyla lanceolata Groundcover - Frog Fruit seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep pink full wet, med-wet 2'       PHLA3;
BONAP
8, 36, 45, 80, 102, 108, 154
    Lanceleaft Blanketflower Gaillardia aestivalis       HAB,                  GAAE;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 94, 102, 108, 204, 236
    Large yellow Wild Indigo Baptisia sphaerocarpa Indigo seeds (10) PMNAS HAB, MS, NC,  Jun, Jul yellow full med, med-dry, dry 3' P 18 butterflies & moths, bees   ;
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 154, 158, 204, 236, 242
    Large-Flowered Beardtongue Penstemon grandiflorus Penstemon seeds (30) PM   May, Jun purple full, partial med-dry, dry 2'   14* butterflies & moths   ??;
BONAP
236
    Large-Flowered Gaura Gaura longiflora Gaura seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep pink full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry     8 butterflies & moths   OEFI2;
BONAP
21, 36, 80, 94, 102, 154, 158, 236, 237, 239
    Late Boneset Eupatorium serotinum Boneset seeds (60) PM NH,  Aug, Sep, Oct white full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 1-3'. D 33 butterflies & moths   EUSE2;
BONAP
21, 36, 80, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 236, 237, 239, 242
    Late Goldenrod Solidago gigantea Goldenrod seeds (60) PM   Aug, Sep yellow full, partial, shade wet, med-wet, med 6'   82 butterflies & moths   SOGI;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 102, 154
    Leatherflower, blue Jasmine Clematis crispa vine       Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep white, pink, blue, purple full, partial   up to 10' D     CLCR; 
BONAP
21, 102, 204
    Leavenworth's Sedge Carex leavenworthii grass     HAB, NC,        OBL         CALE6; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 80, 94, 102, 108, 154, 158, 204, 236, 239, 242
    Lemon Bacopa, blue Water Hyssop Bacopa caroliniana aquatic     GSW,        ASPE, OBL        
BONAP
108
  . Lemon Beebalm Monarda citriodora Mint seeds (0) PMNAS HAB,  May, Jun, Jul, Aug pink, purple, white  full, partial med, med-dry, dry 1-2' A 7 butterflies & moths   MOCI;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 45, 94,102, 154, 204, 228, 236, 237, 239
    Lindheimer's Beebalm Monarda lindheimeri Bee Balm     HAR,             7* butterflies & moths   MOLI2;
BONAP
21, 102, 154, 236, 237
  . Little bluestem "Big Four" Schizachyrium scoparium grass seeds (0) PM HAB, HAR, NH,  Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct green, blue full, partial med, med-dry, dry 3' P 8 butterflies & moths   SCSC;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 108, 170, 236, 239, 242
  . Lizard's Tail Saururus cernuus aquatic     GSW, Apr-Aug white  partial, shade   2-4' P     SACE;
BONAP
8, 21, 102, 154, 158, 170, 204, 236
  . Loblolly PIne Pinus taeda tree       All year   full, partial   60-100' E 176 butterflies & moths   PITA;
BONAP
8, 36, 45, 94, 102, 154, 170, 203, 236, 242
    Locust Robinia tree                   64 butterflies & moths   ROHIH; 
BONAP
 
    Long-Awned Bracted Sedge Carex gravida grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun . full, partial med, med-dry, dry 2'. P .   ;
BONAP
108
    Longbract Wild Indigo Baptisia bracteata Indigo seeds (10) PM HAB,   May, Jun cream full, partial med, med-dry, dry 2' P 18 butterflies & moths, bees   ;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 170, 204, 239, 242
    Longleaf bluets Houstonia longifolia bluets seeds (0) PM   Jun, Jul white, pink full, partial dry 1-3'. P 1* butterflies & moths   HOUST;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94,102, 170, 204, 236, 237, 239
    Longspike Tridens Tridens strictus       HAB, HAR,                 TRST2;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 94, 102, 170, 204, 228, 236, 237, 242
    Longtorn Paspalum denticulatum       HAB,                  PADE24;
BONAP
36, 80, 102, 158, 237, 242
    Lopseed Phryma leptostachya Lopseed seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug pink partial, shade wet, med-wet, med 2' P     PHLE5;
BONAP
204, 236, 237
  . Lyreleaf Sage Salvia lyrata Sage seeds (0) PM HAB, HAR, MS, NH,  May, Jun, Jul blue full, partial med-wet, med 1-2' P 13* butterflies & moths   SALY2;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 80, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 236, 237, 239
    Maidencane Panicum hemitomon       GSW             30 butterflies & moths   PAHE2;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 102
    Marbleseed Onosmodium molle Marbleseed seeds (0) PM   Jun, Jul cream full, partial med, med-dry, dry     3* butterflies & moths   ONOSM;
BONAP
36, 94, 102, 170, 236, 239
    Marsh Elder Iva annua Elder   NAS   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov yellow, green     5' A birds   IVAN2;
BONAP
21, 36, 80, 102, 154, 158, 204, 236, 239
    Marsh St. John's Wort Hypericum virginicum St. John's Wort seeds PM   Jul, Aug, Sept pink full wet, med-wet     13* butterflies & moths   TRVI2;
BONAP
108
    Maryland Senna, Wild Senna Senna marilandica Senna seeds JBPM   Jul, Aug yellow full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry   P 14* butterflies & moths, birds   SEMA11;
BONAP
21, 94, 154, 204, 236, 239
    Maximilian's Sunflower Helianthus maximiliani sunflower seeds (30) PMNAS HAB, HAR, NC, NH,  Aug, Sept yellow full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry   A 81 butterflies & moths   HEMA2;
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 170, 236, 239
    May Apple Podophyllum peltatum Apple seeds (90) PM   May, Jun white partial, shade med, med-dry 12"   2 butterflies & moths   POPE;
BONAP
36, 102, 108, 170, 204, 236
    Meadow Beauty Rhexia virginica Beauty seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept pink full, partial wet, med-wet 12"   4 butterflies & moths   RHVI;
BONAP
108
    Meadow pink Sabatia campestris         Apr, May, Jun, Jul pink or white full, partial   to 20" A     SACA3;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 80, 102, 154,204, 228, 236, 237, 239
    Mealy blue Sage Salvia farinacea Sage   NAS HAR,             13* butterflies & moths   SAFA2;
BONAP
154
  . Mexican Buckeye Ungnadia speciosa tree       All seasons pink  full, partial   10-25' D     UNSP;
BONAP
26, 94, 102
  . Mexican Hat Ratibida columnifera Coneflower seeds (30) NASPMNAS HAB, HAR, May-Oct yellow full   1.5-3' E, SE 1 butterflies & moths   RACO3;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 102, 154,  170, 204, 237, 239
  . Mexican Plum Prunus mexicana tree     HAR, NH,  Spring white full, partial   10-20' D 270 butterflies & moths, fruit   PRME;
BONAP
21, 26, 80, 94,102, 154, 158, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239
    Mexican Water Primrose Ludwigia octovalvus shrub - aquatic     GSW,       wet, OBL         LUOCO;
BONAP
21, 102, 129
    Missouri Goldenrod Solidago missouriensis Goldenrod seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full med-dry, dry 2'   82 butterflies & moths   SOMI2;
BONAP
8, 102, 237, 204
  . Missouri Ironweed Vernonia missurica       HAB, HAR, MS, NC, NH,  Summer- fall purple  full, partial   2-5'' P? A?     VEMI2;
BONAP
21, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 236
  . Muscadine Grape Vitus rotundifolia vine       Sep, Oct purple  partial, shade 72-100'   D 78 butterflies & moths, fruit   ;
BONAP
21, 26, 94, 102, 108, 154, 158, 228, 236
    Narrow-Leaved Coneflower Echinacea angustifolia Coneflower seeds (90) PMNAS   Jun, Jul pink full med-dry, dry     1* butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
 
    Narrow-Leaved Obedient Plant Physostegia angustifolia Obedient seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul pink full, partial wet, med-wet, med 5'       PHAN6;
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 170
    Narrowleaf Silkgrass Pityopsis graminifolia grass     HAR, NC,                  PIGR4;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 94,102, 158, 170, 236
    New Jersey Tea Ceanothus americanus Tea seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug white full, partial med, med-dry, dry         CEAM; 
BONAP
21, 108, 158, 236
    Nodding Fescue Festuca subverticillata grass seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul   partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry 2'       FESU3;
BONAP
26
    Northern Catalpa Catalpa speciosa catalpa                   11 butterflies & moths   CASP8; 
BONAP
21, 102, 170, 204, 236, 239
  . Ohio Spiderwort Tradescantia ohiensis Spiderwort seeds (120) PM GSW, May, Jun, Jul blue full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry FAC 1-3' P 5 butterflies & moths   TROH;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 154, 228, 239
    Old Field / Prairie Goldenrod Solidago nemoralis Goldenrod seeds (60) PMNAS   Aug, Sept yellow full, partial med-dry, dry 2'   82 butterflies & moths   SONE;
BONAP
204
    orange Coneflower Rudbeckia fulgida Coneflower seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept orange full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 3'   14* butterflies & moths   RUFU2;
BONAP
204, 236
  . Osage orange, Bois d'arc Maclura pomifera tree       Spring & Fall So'ball sized full, partial   20-40' D     MAPO:
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 94, 102, 154, 236, 239, 242
    Pale Dock Rumex altissimus grass seeds (0) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug   full, partial med-wet, med 3'       RUAL4;
BONAP
21, 26, 158, 239
    Pale purple Coneflower Echinacea pallida Coneflower seeds (90) PM   Jun, Jul pink full, partial med, med-dry, dry     1* butterflies & moths   ECSA;
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 108, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Pale Spiked Lobelia Lobelia spicata Lobelia seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug purple full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry     4* butterflies & moths, hummingbirds   LOSP;
BONAP
102, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Panicled Tick Trefoil Desmodium paniculatum Trefoil seeds (0) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept pink partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry, dry         ;
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 94, 102, 108, 154, 158, 170, 204, 236, 237, 239
    Parlin's Pussytoes Antennaria parlinii Pussytoes seeds (60) PM   April. May, Jun white full, partial med, med-dry, dry 12" P 3 butterflies & moths   ANPA9; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 94, 108, 170, 236
    Parsley Hawthorn Crataegus marshallii tree     HAR, NH,  spring & winter white full, partial   10-25' D 105 butterflies & moths   CRMA5; 
BONAP
21, 26, 94, 102, 108, 154, 158, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239, 242
    Partridge Pea Chamaecrista fasciculata Pea seeds (10) PMNAS HAR,  Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full, partial med, med-dry, dry 1-3' A 14 butterflies & moths   CHFA2; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 94,102, 154, 158, 170, 204, 236, 239, 242
    Passionflower vine,  Maypop vine       May, Jun, Jul, Aug purple  full, partial     SE    
BONAP
none
    Path Rush Juncus tenuis grass seeds (60), NPN PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept . full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 1'. P 6* butterflies & moths   JUTE;
BONAP
21, 36, 80, 102, 239, 242
    Pawpaw Asimina parviflora tree                   12 host: Zebra Swallowtail, Pawpaw Sphinx, Tussock moth  
BONAP
36, 170, 204
    Pawpaw Asimina triloba tree     HAR,             12 butterflies & moths  
BONAP
36
    Pecan Carya illinoinensis tree     HAR, Fall Edible nuts full   50-100' D 189 butterflies & moths   CAIL2; 
BONAP
21, 26, 45, 80, 154, 239
    Persimmon Diospyros virginiana tree     HAR,             48 butterflies & moths   DIVI5;
BONAP
21,25, 36, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 236, 239
    Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata aquatic - Pickerelweed seeds (60) PM GSW, NH,  Jun, Jul, Aug purple full, partial wet POCO14, OBL 3'   6 butterflies & moths   POCO14;
BONAP
36, 102, 108, 154, 170, 228, 236
  . Pigeonberry Rivina humilis Pigeonberry   NAS HAR, May- August pink and white full, partial   1-1.5' SE berries   RIHU2;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 102, 239
    Pincushion Daisy Gaillardia suavis Daisy   NAS               6* butterflies & moths   GASU;
BONAP
21, 26
    Pineland Milkweed Asclepias obovata Milkweed                       ASOB; 
BONAP
8, 21, 36
    Pinewoods/ Blackseed Fingergrass Eustachy petraea       HAB,                 ;
BONAP
none
    pinkweed Persicaria pensylvanica pinkweed seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct pink partial wet, med-wet, med 4'       POPE2;
BONAP
21, 45,,102, 239, 242
    Plains Coreopsis, Goldenwave,  Coreopsis tinctoria Coreopsis   NAS HAB,   Apr-Jun yellow  full, partial   1-2' A 6* butterflies & moths   COTI3; 
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 45, 80, 102, 158, 170, 204
    Plains Lovegrass Eragrostis intermedia       HAB,                  ERIN;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 45, 94, 102, 158, 170, 237, 239, 242
    Plains Oval Sedge Carex brevior grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul white, green, brown full, partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 1.5'. P .   CABR10; 
BONAP
21, 26, 80, 94, 102, 170, 204, 236, 237
    Pleatleaf Iris Alophia drummondii       NC,                 
BONAP
BONAP; USDA
    Possumhaw Holly Ilex decidua tree     HAR, Winter red berries on female full, partial   12-15' D 42 butterflies & moths   ILDE;
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 80, 94, 108, 170, 204, 228, 236, 237, 239
    Powdery Thalia, Alligator flag Thalia dealbata aquatic     GSW, NH,                  THDE;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 80, 94, 102, 154, 158, 237
    Prairie / Canada Wild Rye Elymus canadensis grass seeds (0) PMNAS   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct full, partial   med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 5'   2 butterflies & moths   ELCA4;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 154, 170, 236, 239
    Prairie Blazing Star, Gayfeather Blazing Star Liatris pycnostachya Blazing Star seeds (60) PMNAS HAB, NC, NH, MS Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial wet, med-wet, med 1-5' P 6* butterflies & moths   LIPY;
BONAP
8, 36, 80, 102, 108, 158, 170, 204, 228, 236, 242
    Prairie blue-Eyed grass Sisyrinchium campestre grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun blue full, partial med-dry, dry 6"       SICA9;
BONAP
102, 236
    Prairie Flame Leaf Sumac Rhus lancelota       HAR,             55 butterflies & moths   RHLA3;
BONAP
21
  . Prairie Gerardia Agalinis heterophylla Foxglove .     Aug-Nov pink full, partial   1-3' A 4 butterflies & moths   USDA  
    Prairie Indian Plantain Arnoglossum plantagineum Plantain seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul white full med-wet, med 4' P 1 butterflies & moths, insects   ARPL4; 
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 154, 158, 170, 204, 236, 239
    Prairie Nymph herbertia lahue Nymph   NAS   Mar, Apr, May blue, purple partial dry   P     HELA6;
BONAP
8, 21, 80, 94, 102, 239, 242
    Prairie Onion Allium stellatum Onion seed (60), bulb division PM   Jul, Aug purple full, partial med, med-dry, dry 14" P butterflies  
BONAP
21
    Prairie Paintbrush Castilleja purpurea Paintbrush   NAS               7* butterflies & moths   CAPU11; 
BONAP
154
    Prairie Parsley Polytaenia nuttallii Parsley seeds (120) PMNAS   Jun yellow full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 4'       PONU4;
BONAP
8, 21, 94, 102, 108, 154, 228, 236, 239
    Prairie Phlox Phlox pilosa Phlox seeds (60) PMNAS   May, Jun, Jul pink full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 2' P 7 butterflies & moths, bees   PHPI;
BONAP
36, 94, 102, 108, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Prairie Ragwort Packera plattensis Ragwort seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul yellow full, partial med, med-dry, dry     1 butterflies & moths   PAPL12;
BONAP
21, 26
    Prairie Sage Artemisia ludoviciana Sagfe seeds (30) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept green full, partial med, med-dry, dry 3' P 26 butterflies & moths, insects   ARLU; 
BONAP
21, 94, 154, 170
    Prairie Spiderwort Tradescantia occidentalis Spiderwort seeds (120) PMNAS HAB, NC, NH,  May, Jun, Jul blue full med, med-dry, dry 2' A 5 butterflies & moths   TROC;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36
    Prairie Wedgegrass Sphenopholis obtusata grass seeds (0) PM NC,  Jun, Jul, Aug   full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry   3' A     SPOB;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 80, 102, 108, 154, 158,228, 236, 239
    Prairie Willow Salix humilis tree - Willow seeds (M) PM   April, May   full, partial med, med-dry, dry up to 8'   229 butterflies & moths   SALIX;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 102, 154, 158, 170, 236, 239
    Prickly Poppy Argemone polyanthemos Poppy seeds PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept white full med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 3' A butterflies, bees, beetles   ARPO2; 
BONAP
21, 26, 45, 154, 239
    Purple Coneflower Echinacea purpurea Coneflower seeds (0) JBPMNAS HAR, NC,  Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry     1* butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
none
    Purple Leather Flower Clematis pitcheri Leather   NAS               14 butterflies & moths   CLPI; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 45, 94, 102, 237, 242
    Purple Locoweed Oxytropis lambertii Locoweed seeds (0) PM   April, May, Jun purple full med-dry, dry         OXLA3;
BONAP
239
    Purple Love grass Eragrostis spectabilis grass seeds (0) PM   Jul, Aug red, purple  full, partial dry 8"-18" P 2 butterflies & moths   ERSP;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 45, 80, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 236
    Purple Meadow Rue Thalictrum dasycarpum aquatic - Rue seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul cream full, partial med-wet, med   6' P 3 butterflies & moths   THDA;
BONAP
21, 80, 158
    Purple Milkweed vine Matelea biflora vine - Milkweed vine   NAS   Mar, Apr, May, Jun purple, brown full, partial dry   P 1 butterfly & moth   ;
BONAP
none
    Purple Nightshade Solanum elaeagnifolium Nightshade   NAS                   SOEL;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 94, 102, 154, 237
    Purple Passion Flower Passiflora incarnata vine seeds (60) JBPM HAB, NC,   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct purple full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry   A 14 butterflies & moths   PAIN6;
BONAP
21, 26, 154, 158, 237
    Purple-Headed Sneezeweed Helenium flexuosum Sneezeweed seeds (0) PM NC,  Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full, partial wet, med-wet, med   A 6 butterflies & moths   HEFL;
BONAP
8, 36, 45, 102, 154, 170
    Purpletop Tridens flavus grass seeds (60) PMNAS HAB, MS, NH,  Aug, Sep, Oct grass - 4'. full, partial med-dry, dry 4'       TRFL2;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 228, 236
    Rain Lily Cooperia pedunculata Lily   NAS               2 butterflies & moths  
BONAP
21, 170, 239
    Rattlebox Crotalaria sagittalis Rattlebox seeds (0) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full med-dry, dry     10 butterflies & moths   CRSA4; 
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 94, 108, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Rattlesnake Master Eryngium yuccifolium Rattlesnake Master seeds (60) PMNAS HAB, HAR, NC, NH,  Jul, Aug, Sept white full med-wet, med, med-dry 3-6' E 4* butterflies & moths   ERYU;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 80, 102, 154, 204, 228, 236, 239, 242
  . red Bay Persea borbonia tree       Fall black berries full, partial   12-40' E     PEBO;
BONAP
102, 204, 237
    red Lovegrass Eragrostis secundiflora       HAB,                  ERSE;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 158, 170, 228, 236, 237
    red Milkweed Asclepias rubra Milkweed                       ASRU; 
BONAP
108
  . red Mulberry Morus rubra tree       Spring Sweet full, partial   35-40' D     MORU2;
BONAP
21, 45, 80, 94, 102, 154, 158, 228, 236
    redring Milkweed Asclepias variegata Milkweed                      
BONAP
204, 236
    Rice Cut grass Leersia oryzoides grass seeds (30) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct full, partial   wet, med-wet 4'.   host: Skipper birds, butterflies   LEOR;
BONAP
21, 102, 170, 236
  . River Birch Betula nigrad tree       Winter Bark full, partial   30-50' D     ;
BONAP
21, 108, 204, 236
    Robin's Plantain Erigeron pulchellus Plantain seeds (60) PM   May, Jun white full, partial med-dry, dry     18* butterflies & moths   ERPHP;
BONAP
21, 26, 94, 102, 236, 242
    Rose Mallow Hibiscus laevis Mallow seeds (60) PM HAR, Jul, Aug, Sept pink or white full, partial wet, med-wet 5-6' D 38 butterflies & moths   HILA2;
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170
    Rosinweed Silphium radula       HAB, NH,                  SIRA2;
BONAP
8, 21, 94, 102, 237, 239
    Rosy Camphorweed Pluchea rosea       HAB,                  PLRO;
BONAP
36, 102
    Rough Coneflower Rudbeckia grandiflora Coneflower     HAB, HAR, NC, NH,              14* butterflies & moths   RUGR;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 102, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236, 242
    Rough Dropseed, Tall Dropseed Sporobolus compositus grass seeds (0) PMNAS   Aug, Sep, Oct full   med, med-dry, dry 3'   3* butterflies & moths   SPCO16;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 80, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 228, 236,239, 242
    Roughleaf Dogwood Cornus drummondii tree     HAB, HAR, NH,              79 butterflies & moths  
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 80, 94, 102, 158, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239, 242
  . Royal Fern Osmunda regalis         Feb-Dec green partial, shade   3-6' P     OSRE;
BONAP
36, 94, 102, 108, 170, 204, 236
    Rue Anemone Anemonella thalictroide Thalictrum thalictroides Anemone seeds (90) PM   April, May, Jun pink partial, shade med, med-dry 6" P .   ??;
BONAP
 
    Rufous Bulrush Scirpus pendulus grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul full, partial   wet, med-wet, med 4'       SCPE4;
BONAP
94, 204, 236
  . Rusty Blackhaw Viburnum  Viburnum rufidulum tree       Spring and Fall white full, partial   12-40' D 67 butterflies & moths, fruit   VIRU;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 158, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239, 242
    Sallow Sedge Carex lurida grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug white, green, brown full, partial, shade wet, med-wet 3'. P .   CALU5;
BONAP
8, 108, 170, 204, 236, 237
    Salt Marsh Mallow Kosteletzkya virginica shrub - aquatic, hibiscus     GSW, MS, NH, pink  Jun-Nov full, partial   3-5' D butterflies, hummingbirds   KOVI;
BONAP
21, 36, 102
    Salt Meadow Cordgrass Spartina patens grass     GSW       FACW         SPPA;
BONAP
36, 102, 158
    Sampson's Snakeroot Orbexilum pedunculatum Snakeroot seeds (10) PM   May, Jun, Jul purple full, partial med, med-dry, dry       BONAP ORPE 8, 21, 102, 154, 236
    Sand Bracted Sedge Carex muehlenbergii grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul white, green full, partial dry 2'. P .   CAMU4; 
BONAP
21, 36, 108, 228, 239
    Sand Dropseed Sporobolus cryptandrus grass seeds (0) PMNAS   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full med, med-dry, dry 3' P 3* butterflies & moths   SPCR; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 94, 154, 239
    Sand Love grass Eragrostis trichodes grass seeds (0) PMNAS   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct   full med-dry, dry 3'   2* butterflies & moths   ERTR3;
BONAP
21, 108
    Sanguine purple Coneflower Echinacea sanguinea coneflower     HAR, NH,  Apr, Jun, Jul Rose-pink full, partial   3' P     ECSA;
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 108, 170, 204, 228, 236
  . Sassafras tree Sassafras albidum tree - Sassafras     HAR, Fall   full, partial   15-20' D 25 butterflies, moths, host: Swallowtail   SAAL5;
BONAP
102, 108, 154, 170, 228, 236
    Savannah Panic Phanopyrum gymnocarpon grass     GSW                 PHGY2;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 102, 170, 204, 228,
    Saw-Tooth fullflower Helianthus grosseserratus fullflower seeds (30) PM   Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry     81 butterflies & moths   HEGR4;
BONAP
21, 94, 154, 170, 236
    Scaly Blazing Star Liatris squarrosa Blazing Star seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial med-dry, dry 1-3' P 6 butterflies & moths   LISQ
BONAP; USDA
8, 21, 36, 94, 102, 154, 204, 228, 236, 237, 239
  . Scarlet Buckeye red Buckeye, Firecracker Plant Aesculus pavia var. pavia tree cuttings, seeds   HAB, HAR, MS, NH,  Spring Scarlet partial   10-20' D butterflies, hummingbirds, bees, nuts  
BONAP
8, 26, 45, 80, 94, 108, 158, 239
    Scarlet Gaura Gaura coccinea Gaura seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug pink full med-dry, dry     8* butterflies & moths   BONAP; USDA none
    Scarlet Toothcup Ammannia coccinea Toothcup seeds (0) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug pink partial wet, med-wet 2' A .   AMCO; 
BONAP
21, 26, 102, 236, 239
  . Seaside Goldenrod Solidago sempervirens Goldenrod     HAB, MS, NH, Aug-Oct yellow  full   2-8' P 82 butterflies & moths   SOSE;
BONAP; ​USDA
8, 36, 45, 80 102, 158
    Seedbox Ludwigia alternifolia Seedbox seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul yellow full med-wet   P 9 butterflies & moths   LUAL2;
BONAP; ​USDA
21, 102, 108, 158
    Selfheal Prunella vulgaris       HAR, NH, MS                 PRVU;
BONAP; ​USDA
21, 94, 154, 170, 228, 236
    Sessile-Leaf Tick Trefoil Desmodium sessilifolium Trefoil seeds (0) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial med-dry, dry         BONAP; USDA 21, 26, 45, 154, 170, 238
    Sharp Blazing Star, Gayfeather Liatris acidota Blazing Star     HAB, MS, NC, NH,   Jul-Sep purple  full moist 2-3' D 6* butterflies & moths, bees   .BONAP; USDA 8, 21, 36, 45, 102, 158, 170, 204, 228, 236, 237,
    Shining Bur Sedge Carex intumescens grass seeds (60) PM   Apr, May, Jun, Jul white, green, brown full, partial, shade wet, med-wet, med 2'. P .   CAIN12; 
BONAP
102, 204, 288, 242
  . Shining Sumac, Winged Sumac Flameleaf Sumac Rhus copallinum tree       Fall Flaming red fall color full, partial   10-20' D 55 butterflies & moths   RHCO;
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 108, 170, 204, 236
    Shoreline Sedge Carex hyalinolepis grass     GSW       OBL        
BONAP
21, 36, 154
    Showy Beardtongue Penstemon cobaea Penstemon seeds (30) PM   May, Jun, Jul purple full, partial med-dry, dry 2'   14* butterflies & moths   PECO4;
BONAP
21, 26, 94, 170, 239
  . Showy Evening Primrose Oenothera speciosa     NAS HAR Mar-July pink-white  full, partial   to 1.5' P, SE 22 butterflies & moths   OESP2;
BONAP
26, 36, 45, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 228, 237, 239, 242
    Showy Goldenrod Solidago speciosa Goldenrod seeds (60) JBPM HAB,  Sep, Oct, Nov yellow full, partial med, med-dry, dry   5'   82 butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
 
    Showy fullflower Helianthus pauciflorus fullflower seeds (30) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full, partial med-dry, dry     81 butterflies & moths   HEPA19;
BONAP
102
    Showy Tick Trefoil Desmodium canadense Trefoil seeds (0) PM   Jul, Aug purple full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry         ;
BONAP
21, 108, 154, 170, 204, 236
  . Shumard red Oak Quercus shumardii tree       Fall red leaves full, partial   50-90' D 468 butterflies & moths   QUSH;
BONAP
21, 26, 80, 102, 236
    Sicklepod Boechera canadensis Sicklepod   PM   May, Jun, Jul white partial, shade med-dry, dry   .    
BONAP
236
  . Side-Oats Grama Bouteloua curtipendula grass seeds (0) PMNAS HAB, BU Aug, Sept -- full, partial med, med-dry, dry 2'. P host - Skipper birds, bees, butterflies   BOCU; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 94, 102, 204, 236,  239, 242
    Silky Aster Symphyotrichum sericeum Aster seeds (60) PM   Sep, Oct purple full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 12" P 7* butterflies, insects, host: Pearl Crescent   SYSE2;
BONAP
94, 102
    Silky Prairie Clover Dalea villosa Clover seeds (0) PM   Jul, Aug purple full, partial dry     3 butterflies & moths  
BONAP
21, 100, 170
    Silver bluestem Bothriochloa laguroides       NH,                 
BONAP
BONAP; USDA
    Silveus' Dropseed Sporobolus silveanus       HAB,                  SPSI2;
BONAP
21, 102
    Sky blue Aster Symphyotrichum oolentangiense Aster seeds (0), cuttings PM   Aug, Sep, Oct blue full, partial med, med-dry, dry 3' P 7* butterflies & moths, bees   SYOO;
BONAP
102, 108, 154, 204, 236
    Sleepy Daisy Xanthisma texanum Daisy   NAS                   ;
BONAP
21, 26, 102, 154, 170, 239
    Slender Mountain Mint Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Mountain Mint seeds (0) PMNAS HAB, NH,  Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept white full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 2'   3* butterflies & moths   PYTE;
BONAP
8, 36, 45, 102, 236
    Slender Rosinweed Silphium gracile       NC,              2* butterflies & moths   SIGR4;
BONAP
8, 36, 45, 80, 120, 204, 236
    Slender Sedge Carex leptalea grass seeds (60) PM   Apr, May, Jun, Jul white, green, brown full, partial, shade wet, med-wet 2'. P .  
BONAP
204, 236
    Slender Woodoats Chasmanthium laxum       HAB, NC,                  CHLA6; 
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Slim Milkweed Asclepias linearis Milkweed     HAB, MS             22 butterflies & moths   ASLI; 
BONAP
36
    Slimleaft Milkweed, Narrowleaft Milkweed Asclepias stenophylla Milkweed                       ASST; 
BONAP
102
    Small Skullcap Scutellaria leonardii Skullcap seeds (60) PM   May, Jun purple full, partial med-dry, dry 4"       SCPAM;
BONAP
236, 238
    Small Wild Bean Strophostyles leiosperma Bean seeds (30) PM   Aug, Sept pink full med, med-dry, dry 6'   5 butterflies & moths   STLE6; 
BONAP
21,  94, 170, 236, 239
  ? Small-Flower Fame Flower Talinum parviflorum Fame seeds PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug pink full dry 9"       PHPA29; 
BONAP
21
    Smallspike False Nettle Boehmeria cylindrica Nettle seeds JBPM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct yellow partial med-wet, med   P host - red Admiral, Easter Comma   ;
BONAP
45, 102, 108, 154, 204
    Smooth Hedgenettle Stachys tenuifolia Hedgenettle seeds PM   Jun, Jul, Aug pink, white full, partial med-wet, med   3' P     STTE; 
BONAP
102, 158
    Smooth Wild Petunia Ruellia strepens Petunia seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial, shade med-wet, med 3'   6 butterflies & moths   RUST2;
BONAP
8, 21 80, 102, 170, 236, 237, 242
    Smooth yellow Violet Viola pubescens var. eriocarpa Violet seeds (60) PM   April, May, Jun yellow partial med-wet, med 6"   20* butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
none
    Soapberry Sapindus saponaria var. drummondii                     9 butterflies & moths   SASAD; 
BONAP
26, 80, 102, 154, 237
    Soapweed ??

Yucca glauca

  seeds PM   May, Jun     med, med-dry, dry 3'         8, 21, 36, 94, 102, 108, 203, 236, 239
    Southerern Dewberry, Rubus trivialis       HAR,             100 butterflies & moths   RUTR;
BONAP
21, 26, 80, 102, 170, 228, 239
    Southern blue Flag Iris virginica var. shrevei aquatic Iris seeds (120) PM GSW, NH,  May, Jun, Jul purple full, partial wet, med-wet, med IRVI, OBL P       IRVI;
BONAP
36, 102, 108, 154, 204
    southern crab apple Malus angustifolia                     190 butterflies & moths   MAAN3;
BONAP
170
    Speargrass Piptochaetium avenaceum grass                   1 butterfly & moth   PIAV;
BONAP
21, 36, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Spicebush Lindera benzoin shrub     HAR, NH,  Mar, Apr, May white, yellow, green full, Part shade, shade dry, moist, wet 15' P     ;
BONAP
none
    Spider Lily Hymenocallis liriosme aquatic - Lily     GSW, HAB, MS, NH,  Feb-Sep white  partial   1-2', D 1 butterfly & moth   HYLI;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 80, 94, 102, 154, 158, 237, 242
    Spike Rush Eleocharis acicularis grass seeds (60) PM     Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept full wet, med-wet 8"   4* butterflies & moths   ELAC;
BONAP
 
  . Splitbeard bluestem Andropogon ternarius grass     HAB, NC,  Aug-Nov   full, partial   1.5-4' P 22 butterflies & moths   ANTE2; 
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 94, 108, 154, 158, 170, 228, 236, 242
    Spotted Bee Balm Monarda punctata Bee Balm seeds (0) PMNAS HAB,  Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial med-dry, dry     7* butterflies & moths   MOPU;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 102, 154, 170, 228. 236, 239
    Spring Beauty Claytonia virginica Beauty seeds PM   April, May, Jun pink shade wet, med-wet, med         CLVI3; 
BONAP
21, 80, 94, 108, 158, 239
    Squarestem Spikerush Eleocharis quadrangulata aquatic Rush     GSW,        wet
OBL
        ELQU;
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 102, 170, 228, 236
    St. Andrew's Cross Hypericum hypericoides         Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full, partial   1-3' E 13* butterflies & moths   HYHY;
BONAP
21, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 236, 239
    Standing Cypress Ipomopsis rubra Cypress seeds NAS BU, HAR May, Jun, Jul red, orange, yellow full, partial dry 3-6' B hummingbirds   IPRU2;
BONAP
21, 26, 102, 154, 239
    Stiff Goldenrod Oligoneuron rigidum Goldenrod seeds (60) PMNAS   Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry         OLRI;
BONAP
80, 94, 102, 236
  . Stout blue-Eyed grass Sisyrinchium angustifolium grass seeds (60) PM HAR, May, Jun blue full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 1-1.5'       SIAN3;
BONAP
21, 36, 102
    Strawberry bush  Euonymus americanus       HAR, NC, Fall-Winter   partial, shade   to 6' D 12 butterflies & moths, fruit   EUAM9;
BONAP
170, 204, 236
    Sugarberry, Hackberry Celtis laevigata tree       Fall yellowish leaves, red berries full, partial   30-50' D     CELA; 
BONAP
21, 26, 94, 102, 154, 239
    Sugarcane Plume grass Saccharum giganteum       GSW, HAB, HAR                 SAGI;
BONAP
102, 108, 170, 204, 236
    Supplejack Berchemia scandens vine       Apr, May, Jun Part shade, shade moist   D   1 butterfly & moth, fruit  
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 154, 158, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239
    Swamp Chestnut Oak, Basket Oak, Cow Oak  Quercus michauxii tree     HAR, Fall   full, partial   60-80' D 468 butterflies & moths   QUMI;
BONAP
170, 204
    Swamp Marigold, Beggarticks, Tickseed fullflower Bidens aristosa Marigold seeds (60) PM HAB, NH,  Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full, partial wet, med-wet 4' A bees   ;
BONAP
8, 26, 36, 80, 94, 102, 154, 170, 236, 237
    Swamp Smartweed Persicaria hydropiperoides aquatic     GSW,                
BONAP
 
    Swamp Sunflower Helianthus angustifolius sunflower seeds (30) PMNAS HAB, NC, NH,  Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full wet, med-wet, med     81 butterflies & moths   HEAN2;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 204, 236, 242
    Swamp Thistle Cirsium muticum Thistle seeds (30) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct purple full, partial wet, med-wet         CIRSI; 
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 80, 102, 108, 154, 236, 237, 239
    Sweet Everlasting Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium Everlasting seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept white full med-dry, dry 2'   4 butterflies & moths   PSOB3;
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 108,  170, 236, 239
  . Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana tree     HAR, Spring white blooms, lemony scent full, partial   10-20' D 19 butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
21, 102, 170
  . Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua tree       Fall yellow and red leaves full, partial   50-60' D 36 butterflies & moths   LIST2;
BONAP
21, 102, 170, 204, 236
    Sweetleaf Symplocos tinctoria tree       Feb, Mar, Apr, May yellow Part shade wet   SE 3 butterflies, birds, insects, host: Hairstreak   SYTI; 
BONAP
36, 102, 170, 228
    Sweetscent Pluchea odorata       MS, NH,                  PLOD;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 94,102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 236, 239
    Switch grass "Big Four" Panicum virgatum grass seeds (0) PMNAS GSW, HAB, NH Jul, Aug, Sept full, partial   med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 4'.   30 butterflies & moths   PAVI2;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 45, 102, 108, 239
    Tall Boneset Eupatorium altissimum Boneset seeds (60) PM   Aug, Sep, Oct white full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 5'. P 33 butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
none
    Tall Coreopsis Coreopsis tripteris coreopsis seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry     6* butterflies & moths  
BONAP
108
    Tall Goldenrod Solidago altissima goldenrod     HAR,             82 butterflies & moths   SOAL6; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 236, 239, 242
    Tall Thistle Cirsium altissimum Thistle seeds (30) JBPM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct purple full, partial med         CIAL2; 
BONAP
102
    Texas bluebells Eustoma exaltatum ssp. russellianum bluebells   NAS NC,  Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep blue full moist 1-3'. A, P, B 2 butterflies & moths   EUEXR;
BONAP
94, 102, 158, 170, 204, 236, 239
  . Texas Coneflower Rudbeckia texana coneflower     HAB, HAR, NC, NH,  May Sep- Nov yellow full   4-5' E 14* butterflies & moths   RUTE4;
BONAP
36, 102, 203
    Texas Grama Bouteloua rigidiseta grass   NAS HAB, NC,  Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov yellow, green, brown full dry <16" P host - Skppers, Satyrs birds, butterflies   ;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 94, 158, 204, 236, 239
    Texas Lantana Lantana urticoides lantana     HAR, NH,    Apr-Oct  orange, red full, partial   5-6' D 17 butterflies & moths, birds, host: Sphinx   LAUR2;
BONAP
21, 26, 237, 239
    Texas Mountain Laurel Sophora secundiflora tree     HAR,           E     SOSE3;
BONAP
242
    Texas Persimmon Diospyros texana tree       spring & summer white blooms, black fruit full, partial   10-15' D 48 butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
21, 36, 94, 102
  . Texas Prairie Parsley Polytaenia texana parsley       Apr-Jun yellow  full   2-4' B     POTE3;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 228, 236, 239
    Texas Thistle Cirsium texanum Thistle   NAS                  
BONAP
21, 108, 154, 237, 239
    Texas Vervain Verbena halei Vernain     HAB, NH,                  VEHA;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 94, 102, 154, 204, 228, 236, 237, 239, 242
    Texas yellow Star Lindheimeri texana yellow Star   NAS                   LITE3;
BONAP
21, 26, 45, 94, 170, 236, 239
    Three-Way Sedge Dulichium arundinaceum grass seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct   partial, shade wet, med-wet 3'       DUAR3;
BONAP
108, 154
    Torrey's Rush Juncus torreyi grass seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct full   med-wet, med 1'. P 6* butterflies & moths   JUTO;
BONAP
21, 102
    Trailing Wild Bean Strophostyles helvola vine Bean seeds (30) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept pink full med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 8' A 5 butterflies & moths   STHE9; 
BONAP
21, 36, 80, 102, 154, 170, 228, 236, 239
    Tropical puff Neptunia pubescens        HAB, NH,                 NEPU3;
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 154, 158, 236, 242
  . Tropical Sage, Scarlet Sage Salvia coccinea Sage     BU, HAR, MS, NC, NH, Feb-Oct red, pink or white full, partial, shade   1-3' A 13* butterflies & moths   SACO5;
BONAP
21, 28, 102, 154, 237, 239
    Trumpt vine Campsis radicans vine                   8 butterflies & moths   CARA2; 
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 80, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236, 239, 242
    Tuba Milkweed Asclepias tomentosa Milkweed                       ASTO; 
BONAP
108
  . Turk's Cap Malvaviscus arboreus var. drummondii Turk's Cap   NAS BU, HAR, MS, NC, NH Spring to fall red partial, shade   3-5' SE 11 butterflies & moths, fruit   MAARD; 
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 45, 94, 102, 108, 170, 236, 237, 239, 242
    Twistleaf Goldenrod Solidago speciosa Goldenrod     HAB, NH,              82 butterflies & moths   SOSP2;
BONAP
8, 21, 45, 102, 108, 154, 158, 236
    Twistleaf Goldenrod Solidago tortifolia       MS,              82 butterflies & moths   SOTO2;
BONAP
8, 36, 102, 158, 237
    Two-Wing Silverbell Halesia diptera tree     HAR, NH,   Spring & Fall white  partial   10-25' D 8 butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
102, 170, 204
    Twoflower Melicgrass Melica mutica       HAB,                  MEMU;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 94, 102, 154, 158, 170, 204, 228, 236, 237
    Upright Burhead Echinodorus berteroi Burhead seeds PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct white full wet, med-wet     2 butterflies & moths   ECBE2;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 80, 102, 158, 237, 239
    Velvet Panicgrass Dichanthelium scorparium       HAB,                   ;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 102, 108, 154, 228, 237
    Venus' Looking Glass Triodanis perfoliata Looking Glass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul, Aug purple full, partial dry 2'       TRPE4;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236, 237, 239, 242
    Violet Ruellia Ruellia nudiflora       HAR,              6 butterflies & moths   RUNU;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 45, 102, 158, 170, 204, 236, 237, 239, 242
    Violet Wood Sorrel Oxalis violacea Violet seeds (60) PM   April, May, Jun purple full, partial med-dry, dry     4* butterflies & moths   OXVI;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 45, 80, 94,102, 108, 154, 158, 170, 204, 228, 236, 237, 239, 242
  . Virginia Creeper  Parthenocissus quinquefolia vine     HAR, May-Jun Sep-Nov gorgeous fall color full, partial, shade   3-40' D     PAQU2;
BONAP
21, 80, 94, 154, 228
    Virginia Sweetspire Itea virginica       NC Spring, fall white partial, shade moist 3-8' D birds   ITVI;
BONAP
158, 204
    Virginia Wild Rye Elymus virginicus grass seeds (0) PMNAS HAB,   Jul, Aug yellow full, partial, shade wet, med-wet, med 2-3' P 2 butterflies & moths   ELVI3;
BONAP
21, 36, 80, 94, 102, 154, 170, 228, 236, 239
    Wafer Ash Ptelea trifoliata tree - Ash seeds (60) PM   May, Jun green partial med-dry, dry 20'       PTTR;
BONAP
21, 36, 94, 102, 239
    Water Canna Canna glauca       GSW                
BONAP
148
    Water Hemlock Cicuta maculata Hemlock seeds (120) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept white full, partial       4 butterflies & moths   CIMA2; 
BONAP
21, 108, 154, 158, 170, 236
    Water Horehound Lycopus americanus aquatic - Horehound seeds (0) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept white full, partial wet, med-wet   P     LYAM;
BONAP
102
    Water Locus ???Gleditsia aquatica                     45 butterflies & moths   GLAQ;
BONAP
21, 36, 94, 102, 154, 237, 239
  . Wax myrtle Morella cerifera tree       Winter Gray berries full, partial   8-10' E     MOCE2;
BONAP
21, 45, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 228, 236
    Western Ironweed Vernonia baldwinii Ironweed seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial med, med-dry 3'   19* butterflies & moths   VEBA;
BONAP
94, 102 108, 239
    Western fullflower Helianthus occidentalis fullflower seeds (30) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept yellow full, partial med, med-dry, dry     81 butterflies & moths   HEOC2;
BONAP
8, 45, 158, 237, 239
    Western Wheatgrass Pascopyrum smithii grass   NAS                   PASM;
BONAP
228
    White Camass Zigadenus elegans Camass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun white full med, med-dry, dry 3'         8, 21, 28, 94, 108, 154, 239
  . White Oak Quercus alba tree     HAR, Spring & Fall   full, partial   80-100' D 468 butterflies & moths   QUAL;
BONAP
21, 170, 228, 236
    White Prairie Clover Dalea candida Clover seeds (0) PMNAS NC Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept white full, partial med, med-dry, dry 1-2' D 3* butterflies & moths  
BONAP
21, 45, 102
    White Snakeroot Ageratina altissima Snakeroot .seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct white partial, shade med-wet, med, and med-dry 2' P insects   USDA

BONAP
 
    White Trout Lily Erythronium albidum Lily   PM   April, May white shade med-wet, med P       ERAL9;
BONAP
154
    White Vervain Verbena urticifolia Vervain seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct white full, partial, shade med-wet, med 5'   11* butterflies & moths   VEUR;
BONAP
8, 21, 80
    White Water Lily Nymphaea odorata aquatic Lilypad     GSW, NH,          6' deep   bees   NYOD;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 45, 94, 108
    White Wild Indigo Baptisia alba Indigo seeds (10) PM   Apr, May, Jun, Jul white full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 4' P 18* butterflies & moths, bees  
BONAP
21, 36, 80, 102, 154
    White Yarrow, Common Yarrow Achillea millefolium yarrow seeds, NPN, Facts JB   Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep white, pink full, partial med, med-dry, dry 1-3' D 10* butterflies & moths, bees, insects   ACMI2; 
BONAP
 
    Whiteleaf Mountain Mint Pycnanthemum albescens       HAB                 PYAL;
BONAP
21, 26, 102, 170, 228, 236
    Whitetop Sedge Rhynchospora colorata grass     GSW                 RHCO7;
BONAP
36, 45, 94, 102, 170, 239
  . Whorled Milkweed, Horsetail Milkweed Asclepias verticillata Milkweed seeds (30) JBPM HAB,   Jul, Aug, Sept white full, partial med, med-dry, dry 2' P 22* butterflies & moths, bees, insects host: Monarch   
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 80, 94, 102, 154, 228, 236, 239
    Wild Bergamot, Bee Balm Monarda fistulosa Bee Balm seeds (0) JBPMNAS   Jul, Aug, Sept purple full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry, dry         MOFI;
BONAP
21, 94, 154, 158, 236
    Wild Black Cherry tree Prunus serotina treey - Charry                   270 butterflies & moths   PRSE2;
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 204, 228
    Wild Four O'Clock Mirabilis nyctaginea Four O'Clock   JB   Jun, Jul, Aug, Sept purple full med, med-dry, dry         MINY;
BONAP
102, 154
  P Wild Garlic Allium canadense Garlic seed (60) PM   May, Jun, Jul pink full, partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry, dry 18" P insects  
BONAP
 
    Wild Hyacinth Camassia scilloides Hyacinth seeds PM   May, Jun white, blue, purple full, partial med-wet, med, med-dry 7" P butterflies, bees  
BONAP
21
    Wild Petunia Ruellia humilis Petunia seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul, Aug purple full med, med-dry, dry 12"   6* butterflies & moths   RUHU;
BONAP
21, 36, 80, 102, 158, 170, 236, 239, 242
    Wild Yam Dioscorea villosa vine seeds (60) PM   Jun, Jul green partial, shade med-wet, med         ;
BONAP
154
    Willow Aster Symphyotrichum praealtum Aster seeds (60) PM   Sep, Oct blue full, partial wet, med-wet, med 3' P 7* butterflies & moths, bees   SYPR5;
BONAP
21, 94, 102, 108, 236, 239, 242
    Willow Oak Quercus phellos tree       Fall brief yellow fall color full, partial   30-60' D 468 butterflies & moths   QUPH;
BONAP
21, 36, 94, 102, 154, 170, 204
    Winecup, Annual Callirhoe leiocarpa Winecup   NAM   Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug red, pink, purple partial moist 1-3' A 1 butterfly & moth, nectar  
BONAP
94, 154
  . Winecup, purple Poppy Mallow Callirhoe involucrata Winecup seeds (30) PMNAS NH Mar, Apr,  May, Jun, Jul, Aug purple, white, pink, full med, med-dry, dry 8-12" E 1 butterfly & moth ,bees, host: Hairstreak   CAIN2;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 45, 80, 102, 154, 237, 239, 242
    Wingstem Verbesina alternifolia Wingstem seeds (30) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct yellow partial, shade med-wet, med 18-24"   21* butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
none
    Wood Gray Sedge Carex grisea grass seeds (60) PM   May, Jun red, purple, brown full, partial, shade wet, med-wet, med 2'. P .   ;
BONAP
21, 38, 236
    Woodland Knotweed Persicaria virginiana Knotweed   PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct white partial, shade med-wet, med, med-dry 2'       POVI2;
BONAP
21, 102, 158, 236
    Wool grass Scirpus cyperinus grass seeds (60) PM   Aug, Sep, Oct full   wet, med-wet 5'       SCCY;
BONAP
94, 154, 204, 236
    Woolly rose mallow Hibiscus lasiocarpos aquatic - shrub - Hibiscus     GSW, NH       wet
OBL
        HILA6;
BONAP
102, 158, 228
  .? Wooly Dutchman’s Pipevine Aristolochia tomentosa vine - Pipevine seeds (90) JB   Mar, Apr, May yellow, green, purple partial moist 72-100'   2* butterflies & moths, host: Pipevine Swallowtail   ARTO3;
BONAP
21, 36, 102, 154, 204
    Wrinkle-Leaf Goldenrod Solidago rugosa Goldenrod seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct yellow full, partial wet, med-wet 3'   82 butterflies & moths   SORU2;
BONAP
94, 108, 170, 204, 236
    Xslender Bush Clover Liatris aspera Clover seeds (10) PM HAR, Jul, Aug, Sept purple partial med, med-dry 2-4' P 6* butterflies & moths   ;
BONAP
 
    Yaupon Holly Ilex vomitoria tree     HAB Winter red berries full, partial   12-25' E 42 butterflies & moths   ILVO;
BONAP
8, 21, 36, 45, 102, 158, 170, 204, 236, 237, 239, 242
    yellow Crownbeard Verbesina helianthoides Crownbeard seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug yellow full, partial med 4'   21* butterflies & moths   VERBE2;
BONAP
21, 26, 36, 94, 102, 108, 154, 170, 204, 236, 242
    yellow False Foxglove Aureolaria grandiflora Foxglove seeds (60) PM   Jul, Aug, Sept yellow partial med-dry, dry 3' P .  
BONAP
21, 236
  . yellow Passionflower Passiflora lutea vine     NH,   May-Sep yellow partial   to 15' D 14 butterflies & moths   PALU2;
BONAP
21, 102, 108, 154, 236
    yellow puff Neptunia lutea       HAB, NH,                  NELU2;
BONAP
8, 21, 26, 36, 102, 108, 154, 158, 170, 204, 236, 239, 242
    Zigzag Iris Iris brevicaulis Iris     RD Mar-Apr blue, full, partial, shade   1-2' P birds   IRBR2;
BONAP
36
  . Zizotes Milkweed Asclepias oenotheroides Milkweed       Mar-Sep green  full   1-3' D 22* butterflies & moths   ASOE; 
BONAP
21, 26, 45, 94, 154, 158, 237, 239

1Scientific and Common Names. Many plants have similar common names. With all the variations in common names, using the scientific name is the only way to ensure the specific plant. Scientific names have two parts, usually based on Latin or Greek words

  •  Straight species:  Echinacea purpurea or E. purpurea The first part is the genus name and is capitalized; the second part is the species and the word and following words (subspecies, etc.) are not capitalized. Straight species are key to creating a wildlife- friendly garden.
  •  Variety Echinacea purpurea var. arkansana Naturally occurring variations are denoted with the abbreviation "var."
  •  Cultivar Echinacea purpurea cv. ‘Magnus’ Cultivars/nativars, a cultivated plant variety formed with human influence, have names written after "cv." or within single quotes; the first letter capitalized and not italicized. Cultivars are typically less attractive to pollinators. Human tampering with a flower structure (e.g., flower color, pest/disease resistance, longer bloom times, double flower petals) results in loss of genetic diversity and often comes at expense of wildlife.
  •  Hybrid Echinacea hybrida Hybrids/nativars, a genetic cross between two entirely different species, have an “x” in the scientific name. Many are sterile are useless to pollinators.

2Category column is helpful for sorting the database by tree, vine, grass, milkweed, shrub, aquatic or common name (e.g., penstemon).

3Propogation Techniques:

  Seeds. Purchase or collect mature seeds; some need cold stratification.
  Scarification is technique for hard or waxy seeds and simulates the natural disintegration (such as weathering, abrasion, or partial digestion) of the seed coat to allow water uptake for timely germination. A simple technique is to rub a single layer of seed between two sandpaper-covered boards for a minute or so until seed coat begins to appear dull. 
   Hardwood Cuttings taken when the plant is not actively growing – usually late fall through winter. (Source)
   Dividing Roots. Plants with fibrous roots and multiple stems can be propagated by division. Dig up or un-pot plant and use a sharp knife or trowel to cut down into root mass. Some damage will occur, but be sure to include intact root and shoot portions for re-potting/transplanting. Divide in half for two large plants, or multiple times for maximum number of smaller plants. Fall or early spring are the best times for division, depending on the species
   Corms is a short, fleshy, vertical underground stem. In the fall, these can be dug up and divided like potatoes, and transplanted for mature flowering plants the next growing season. Small corms (cormels) can be broken off the main corm, or cut larger corms (2" diameter or more) in half vertically. Corms are solid; bulbs have layers like an onion. 
  NPN links to the Native Plant Network Propagation Protocol Database, a website devoted to the sharing of information on how to propagate native plants.

4Seeds. Seeds are abundant, readily available, and inexpensive way to add native plants. By learning to cultivate native seeds, we can become better stewards of our gardens. Collecting indigenous seeds of local native plants is an ideal way to promote the genetic diversity of your region. Using regionally and ecologically adapted plants to your local environmental conditions perform better and gain full sustainable benefits. Seeds can also be purchased from retailers that specialize in native seeds.

  JB Joyful Butterfly sells native plants and seeds.
  PM Prairie Moon Nursery sells native plants and seeds.
  NAS Native American Seed sells seeds native to our bioregion; located in the Texas Hill Country

4Cold stratification. The number of days of cold stratification needed is in parentheses. Cold stratification is the term for a simple procedure that improves your seed germination rate by 300-400%. Cold stratification mimics the winter season’s chilly, moist weather that triggers a seed’s sprouting from a dormant state. Most perennial plant seeds (such as native wildflowers) require this combo of cold and damp to germinate. In nature, this occurs naturally, but you can accomplish the process yourself. The cold temperatures are as close as your refrigerator, and the moisture of the equation is supplied by water.  (Source). Mark a plastic baggie with name of seeds, # of seeds and date it needs to be taken out of the refrigerator. Place ~1/2 cup of vermiculite (chunkier is better) into a plastic baggie, add water to wet, then wait a few hours and pour of excess water.  Wait a few more hours and pour off excess water again. Add seeds and remove air and place in the back of a drawer (where the temperature doesn't fluctuate. Be sure to follow any instructions provided by the company if seeds are purchased as the number of days of cold stratification can vary depending on how the seeds are sown and stored. Additional steps might also be required. 

Germination Time. Germination is the process in which a seeds sprouts into a seedling. All seeds need moisture (evenly moist), warmth (between 65 and 80° F), and light to germinate. Once seeds are removed from the refrigerator, place the baggie in a sunny window (placing bags on a cookie sheet on a heating pad and lamp can help if it's cold outside). Check the seeds daily. Prepare growing containers with ProMix BX (or peat-based seed starter mix with mycorrhizae) that has been pre-wet. Mycorrhizae increase the surface area of a plant's root system and, as a result, the plant is able to absorb more water. When the root pops out, place them in a growing container with ProMix BX. Containers (with holes) that can be watered from the bottom are best. For plants with deep roots (e.g., milkweed), 20 oz clear solo cups (or large cups from fast food restaurants) can be used.

Place sown seed containers outside in indirect light (e.g., patio). Exposure to the wind is good. Bring plants indoors in freezing weather and place them in a well-ventilated, warm spot with bright, indirect light. Run a fan daily to mimic wind • Bottom watering encourages root development and allows the roots to spread out and stay healthier. To water, place pots in a shallow tray of water. When the soil mix surface is moist, remove pot from water and allow it to drain. • Check pots daily to see if they need watering. They should not dry out or be kept soggy. • Monitor seeds regularly; this early stage is important to survival.

5Plants. Retail locations are small growers with limited inventory or by appointment only; call ahead to make sure they have native plants in stock. Most nursery staff are not experts in native plants, when shopping, request a staff member available who is knowledgeable about native plants to assist and mention you don't want cultivars. Look up the scientific name of every plant to double-check what is being recommended.

           AG: Arbor Gate Tomball some natives
  BU: Buchannan's Native Plants  Heights sunny and shady native plant sections, plus native trees
  EF:  Enchanted Forest Richmond some natives
  EG:  Enchanted Gardens  Richmond native plant section
  FH:  Friendswood Hardware Friendswood some natives
  FPN:  Fern Plantation Nursery    some natives, by appointment
  GE: Glenbrook Ecologic  Houston by appointment
  GSW:  Green Star Wetland Plant Farm  Alvin by appointment; monthly open mornings
  HAB: Houston Audubon Houston year-round online sales with local pickup in Houston
  HAR:  Houston Arboretum  Annual Sale March & October
  JNP: Joshua's Native Plants Houston some natives
  MBG: Mercer Botanic Garden  Annual Sale October & March; native plant section
  MGG: Master Gardeners - Galveston County Annual Sale native plant section
  MGH: Master Gardeners - Houston County  Annual Sale native plant section
  MGM: Master Gardeners - Montgomery County  Annual Sale March & September; native plant section
  MN: Maas Nursery  Seabook some natives
  MS: Morning Star Prairie Plants Damon by appointment
  NDN: Next Door Nursery   by appointment
  NPC: Native Plant Society of Texas - Clear Lake Annual Sale October & spring
  NPH: Native Plant Society of Texas - Houston  Annual Sale September - Wildscapes Workshop
  NPM:  Native Plant Society of Texas - Montgomery County Annual Sale October
  NW Nature's Way Resouces Conroe native plant section, plus native trees
  NWB: New World Botanical  Montgomery  
  RDG: Rusty Dog Gardens Annual Sale online sales in spring and fall with local pickup in Houston
  TH: Trees for Houston giveaways Annual Sale spring and fall

Residents of The Woodlands Township may be eligible for up to $150 back from The Woodlands Water Agency when purchasing native plants locally.  

6Sun Exposure:   • Full Sun  80%+ direct sun; 6+ hours of unobstructed sun.
  • Partial 30-80%+ of direct sun; 3-6 hours of sun; dappled shade (woodland edges, next to east or west wall).
  • Shade <20% sunlight; 6+ hours of indirect sunlight (wooded areas, under trees; next to north wall). 

 

7Soil Moisture:   • Dry  Soils have very low moisture levels, soils tend to be sandy, rocky and low in organic material.    
  • Moderate  moisture is well balanced; not saturated and drains well, but never completely dries out. It usually is slightly moist.
  • Wet wetland or shoreline areas; saturated with water; periodic flooding or ponding and does not drain well. 
The Wetland Indicator or Wetland Code are wetland classification categories set by the United States Department of Agriculture. They offer the following interpretations:
    OBL Obligate Wetland: Occurs almost always (estimated probability 99%) under natural conditions in wetlands.
    FACW Facultative Wetland: Usually occurs in wetlands (estimated probability 67%-99%), but occasionally found in non-wetlands.
    FAC Facultative: Equally likely to occur in wetlands or non-wetlands (estimated probability 34%-66%). 

 

8Life Cycle:  Perennial plants regrow every spring and can be deciduous or evergreen
    Deciduous plants shed their leaves seasonally. Woody plants drop leaves, but stems do not die back. Herbaceous perennial plants grow back from the roots or underground stems (bulbs, tubers, corms, or rhizomes). Learn more about leaving the leaves and stems.
     Evergreens have leaves throughout the year that are always green (not all leaves shed at the same time so remain green year-round).
  Annual herbaceous plants live for only one growing season, then die off; plants go from seed to flower to seed in one year. 

 

9Benefits:   The number of butterflies and moths that use the plant as caterpillar host plants is listed if it's found in the National Wildlife Federation Native Plant FinderCaterpillars play a directly proportional role in supporting bird populations. Butterflies and moths are ranked by choosiness of their diet, indicating which may receive the greatest benefit by the inclusion of their host plant in gardens. The site ranks flowers, grasses, trees and shrubs by their value to the ecosystem.
In addition, wildlife that the plant benefits is listed from information found the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Database.   
 

   10Symbols and Maps. USDA Symbol

  USDA United States Department of Agriculture Click on the USDA Symbol and zoom in on the map to see county-level distribution.
  BONAP Biota of North America Project The most detailed and accurate range maps of native and naturalized plants; the color-coded maps are accurate to the county level, and indicate whether a species is present or not, native or exotic, and if it is rare. This is the best resource for researching the “native-ness” and/ or geographic occurrence of a certain species. (Map Color Key
          bright green: native, indigenous, has been recorded in the wild and is naturally occurring in the county
          teal: native, but not indigenous, has been introduced in the county
          yellow: rare native found in the county
          orange: historic native found in the county
          red: presumed extinct native found in the county
          dark green: not known in the county, but recorded wild somewhere in the state and is native to some counties in the state
          other colors: not native (except, pink/magenta can be either noxious native or exotic).

11Counties where the plant is native according to USDA maps.

   8 Austin  26 Burleson  45 Colorado 94 Grimes  154 Madison 170  Montgomery 228 Trinity 237  Waller 242 Wharton
  21 Brazos  36  Chambers 80 Fort Bend 102 Harris 158 Matagorda 204 San Jacinto 236 Walker 239 Washington      

Resources

Native Plant Society of Texas

Native Plant Society of Texas (NPSOT) is a non-profit, volunteer-run organization that works to protect our state’s native plant heritage and preserve it for future generations. through educational programs, workshops, demonstration gardens and many other types of projects. Native landscape classes are offered. The following chapters are located within our council:

Texas Master Naturalist

The Texas Master Naturalist Program is sponsored by Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service and their mission is to develop a corps of well-informed volunteers to provide education, outreach, and service dedicated to the beneficial management of natural resources and natural areas within their communities for the State of Texas. Classes are offered. The following chapters are located within our council:

A Presentation by Dr. Doug Tallamy

Douglas Tallamy discusses simple steps that each of us can—and must—take to reverse declining biodiversity and why we must change our adversarial relationship with nature to a collaborative one.

Recent headlines about global insect declines and three billion fewer birds in North America are a bleak reality check about how ineffective our current landscape designs have been at sustaining the plants and animals that sustain us. Such losses are not an option if we wish to continue our current standard of living on Planet Earth. The good news is that none of this is inevitable. Tallamy will discuss simple steps that each of us can- and must take to reverse declining biodiversity, why we must change our adversarial relationship with nature to a collaborative one, and why we, ourselves, are nature’s best hope. For more information on Homegrown National Park, visit https://homegrownnationalpark.org/.

Ecoregions


Texas is divided into natural regions or ecoregions.
There are four ecoregions in the council: 

  Piney Woods
Gulf Prairies and marshes
 Post Oak Savanah
 Blackland Prairies
Resources:
 Learn More
 Interactive Map
• Ecoregions Map
• Ecoregions of Texas

 

Milkweed Native to Texas

Milkweed isn’t a weed; it’s a flowering plant that attracts butterflies, native bees, and other pollinating insects. Milkweed gets its name from the latex or milky white secretions produced if the stem or leaves are broken. Over 450 native insects feed on milkweed nectar, sap, leaves, and flowers. In addition, it’s an important food source for the caterpillars of the Monarch Butterfly. The adult butterflies lay their eggs exclusively on milkweed since the Monarch caterpillars feed solely on the leaves of the milkweed and are the only host plant for this iconic butterfly. Nectar plants are very important for the Monarch butterfly especially in the spring and fall when they migrate through Texas. Learn more about identifying Texas milkweed. Find milkweed seeds and plants by searching the list for milkweed.

Tropical Milkweed (Asclepias curassavica) is not native to Texas. Tropical milkweed is readily available at many nurseries. "There is preliminary evidence that where tropical milkweed has been introduced, its presence may cause monarchs to reproduce outside of their regular breeding season, disrupt monarchs’ migratory cycle, and increase transmission and virulence of the protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha). Thus, some monarch scientists are concerned that the planting of tropical milkweed may lead to negative impacts on monarch health. For more information on this topic, please download this fact sheet by the Monarch Joint Venture or read this Q&A, also from the Monarch Joint Venture, about research related to tropical milkweed and monarch parasites." (Source)

If you choose to grow tropical milkweed (hopefully while converting to native milkweed), prune it to 6" in September and the regrowth regularly through winter to discourage monarchs from establishing winter-breeding colonies. Fall-migrating Monarchs only need nectar to support their migration, not host plants. Cutting back the milkweed will also help to eliminate OE spores, a debilitating protozoan parasite that infects monarchs, that may be present on the plant. Learn more about why some experts believe tropical milkweed may be harmful to the Monarch butterfly.

Balloon (Hairy Balls) Milkweed (Asclepias physocarpa), Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), Giant Milkweed (Calotropis gigantea) are also not native to our area.

Contacts

For more information, contact Darlene Scheffler.